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Theme 1: The power of Allah in aiding and assisting the Believers.
Theme 2: An appraisal of the battle against the Banu-Nadheer. In this, on the whole, four things have been discussed.
1. In the first four verses the world has been admonished to take heed of the fate that had just befallen the Banu-Nadheer. A major tribe which was as strong in numbers as the Muslims, whose people boasted of far more wealth and possession, who were by no means ill-equipped militarily and whose forts were well fortified could not stand siege even for a few days, and expressed their readiness to accept banishment from their centuries-old, well established settlement even though not a single man from among them was slain. God says that this happened not because of any power possessed by the Muslims but because the Jews had tried to resist and fight God and His Messenger, and those who dare to resist the power of God, always meet with the same fate.
2. In verse 5, the rule of the law of war that has been enunciated is: the destruction caused in the enemy territory for military purposes does not come under “spreading mischief in the earth.”
3. In v. 6-10 it has been stated how the lands and properties which come under the control of the Islamic State as a result of war or peace terms, are to be managed. As it was the first ever occasion that the Muslims took control of a conquered territory, the law concerning it was laid down for their guidance.
4. In v. 11-17 the attitude that the hypocrites had adopted on the occasion of the battle against the Banu-Nadheer has been reviewed and the causes underlying it have been pointed out.
5. The whole of the last section (v. 18-24) is an admonition for all those people who had professed to have affirmed the faith and joined the Muslim community, but were devoid of the true spirit of the faith. In it they have been told what is the real demand of the Faith, what is the real difference between piety and wickedness, what is the place and importance of the Qur’an which they professed to believe in, and what are the attributes of God in Whom they claimed to have believed.