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There a number of names used for this Surah listed by the scholars:
al-Baqarah: This is in reference to the story of the Cow in the incident involving the murder amongst the Children of Israel. The story of the Cow contains the most important lessons for the Believer in relation to the commands of Allah. We learn how we should and how we should not behave with respect to the Shariah and urgency of acting upon the commands and not indulging in excessive questioning. In their implementation of the Law, their excessive questioning and hesitation in implementing the commands of Allah led to their situation only becoming more difficult upon themselves.
Sanaam: Linguistically means the peak or highest point on something or place, for example the sanaam of a camel is in reference to the hump being its highest point. The sanaam of a people are its leaders. Hence, Surah al-Baqarah is the peak with respect to the Qur'an as it contains the most important guidelines in establishing Islam as a system of life. The Prophet [saw] said, ‘Everything has a peak and the peak of the Qur’an is al-Baqarah.’ [Tirmidhee no. 2878].
Fustaat: Ibn Katheer mentions that Khalid bin Ma'dan would refer to this Surah as the fustat of the Qur'an. Fustat can be translated as 'tent' and just as the tent in the battlefield is the head quarters from which all the orders are issued, the Surah is the source/head of the remainder of the Qur'an.
Zahra: Translated as light, this Surah is a light on the path of guidance in this world and the after-life.