Overview - Surah 59: al-Hashr (The Gathering )

Surah Introduction

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The Surah talks about the banishment of Bani Nadhir and secret relations between them and the hypocrites of Madinah. It exhorts the Believers to be firm in their faith in Allah and gives some of the Beautiful Names of Allah.

Sections:

  1. The Banishment of the Jewish tribe of Banu Nadhir.  The distribution of the spoils.
  2. The false promises of the hypocrites.
  3. The exhortation of the Believers to faith.  The Beautiful Names of Allah.

The Surah takes its name from the second Ayat, هُوَ الَّذِي أَخْرَجَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ مِن دِيَارِهِمْ لِأَوَّلِ الْحَشْرِ ۚ "It is He who expelled the ones who disbelieved among the People of the Scripture from their homes at the first gathering....." [59:2]

There are 24 Ayat in this Surah.

Overview

Total Ayat24
Total Words *445
Root Words *162
Unique Root Words *0
Makki / MadaniMadani
Chronological Order* 101st (according to Ibn Abbas)
Year of Revelation* 17th year of Prophethood (4th Year Hijri)
Events during/before this Surah*
, Battle of Uhud, Change of Qiblah from Jerusalem to Makkah - Battle of Badr, Migration from Makkah to Madinah - Building of Masjid Nabi in Madinah - Treaty with Jews of Madinah - Marriage of Prophet to Aishah, , 2nd Pledge of Aqabah, 1st Pledge of Aqabah, Death of Abu Talib - Death of Khadijah - Stoning at Ta'if - al-Isra wal Mi'raj - Night Journey, Boycott of Banu Hashim Yr 3, Boycott of Banu Hashim Yr 2, Boycott of Banu Hashim Yr 1, 2nd Migration to Abyssinia, Physical beating and torture of some Muslims - 1st Migration of Muslims to Abyssinia, Public Invitation to Islam - Persecution of Muslims; antagonism - ridicule - derision - accusation - abuse and false propaganda., Revelation begins - Private Invitation to Islam , Revelation begins - Private Invitation to Islam , Revelation begins - Private Invitation to Islam
Events during/after still to occur*
Battle of Ahzab - Expedition of Banu Quraydhah,Treaty of Hudaiybiyah - Letters to Kings and Rulers,,Conquest of Makkah - Battle of Hunain,Hajj led by Abu Bakr - Expedition of Tabuk,Farewell Hajj by Prophet - Death of Prophet - End of Divine Revelation
Names of Prophets Mentioned
No Prophets names are mentioned in this Surah
Surah Index
God (knows that beyond comprehension) , Booty, Booty (must not benefit those already rich) , Date palms, Hell, Hypocrites, Iblis, Jihad, Prayer (content) , Qur’an, Refugees, Resurrection (of soul)

Central Theme

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Theme 1: The power of Allah in aiding and assisting the Believers.

Theme 2: An appraisal of the battle against the Banu-Nadheer. In this, on the whole, four things have been discussed.

1. In the first four verses the world has been admonished to take heed of the fate that had just befallen the Banu-Nadheer. A major tribe which was as strong in numbers as the Muslims, whose people boasted of far more wealth and possession, who were by no means ill-equipped militarily and whose forts were well fortified could not stand siege even for a few days, and expressed their readiness to accept banishment from their centuries-old, well established settlement even though not a single man from among them was slain. God says that this happened not because of any power possessed by the Muslims but because the Jews had tried to resist and fight God and His Messenger, and those who dare to resist the power of God, always meet with the same fate.

2. In verse 5, the rule of the law of war that has been enunciated is: the destruction caused in the enemy territory for military purposes does not come under “spreading mischief in the earth.”

3. In v. 6-10 it has been stated how the lands and properties which come under the control of the Islamic State as a result of war or peace terms, are to be managed. As it was the first ever occasion that the Muslims took control of a conquered territory, the law concerning it was laid down for their guidance.

4. In v. 11-17 the attitude that the hypocrites had adopted on the occasion of the battle against the Banu-Nadheer has been reviewed and the causes underlying it have been pointed out.

5. The whole of the last section (v. 18-24) is an admonition for all those people who had professed to have affirmed the faith and joined the Muslim community, but were devoid of the true spirit of the faith. In it they have been told what is the real demand of the Faith, what is the real difference between piety and wickedness, what is the place and importance of the Qur’an which they professed to believe in, and what are the attributes of God in Whom they claimed to have believed.

Connection of the name of the Surah and its Ayaat

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Connection between the beginning and the ending of the Surah

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  • The Surah begins and ends with Tasbih [glorification of Allah]. Also both the first and last Ayat end with the two names of Allah Almighty, al-Azeez and al-Hakeem.
    سَبَّحَ لِلَّـهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ۖ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ " Whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth exalts Allah, and He is the Exalted in Might, the Wise." [59:1]

    هُوَ اللَّـهُ الْخَالِقُ الْبَارِئُ الْمُصَوِّرُ ۖ لَهُ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَىٰ ۚ يُسَبِّحُ لَهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۖ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ "He is Allah, the Creator, the Inventor, the Fashioner; to Him belong the best names. Whatever is in the heavens and earth is exalting Him. And He is the Exalted in Might, the Wise." [59:24]

Manuscripts / Inscriptions

Connection of the Surah to the Surah before/after it

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The Virtues of the Surah

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Narrated Ma'qil bin Yasar that the Prophet (ﷺ) said:

مَنْ قَالَ حِينَ يُصْبِحُ ثَلاَثَ مَرَّاتٍ أَعُوذُ بِاللَّهِ السَّمِيعِ الْعَلِيمِ مِنَ الشَّيْطَانِ الرَّجِيمِ وَقَرَأَ ثَلاَثَ آيَاتٍ مِنْ آخِرِ سُورَةِ الْحَشْرِ وَكَّلَ اللَّهُ بِهِ سَبْعِينَ أَلْفَ مَلَكٍ يُصَلُّونَ عَلَيْهِ حَتَّى يُمْسِيَ وَإِنْ مَاتَ فِي ذَلِكَ الْيَوْمِ مَاتَ شَهِيدًا وَمَنْ قَالَهَا حِينَ يُمْسِي كَانَ بِتِلْكَ الْمَنْزِلَةِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى هَذَا حَدِيثٌ غَرِيبٌ لاَ نَعْرِفُهُ إِلاَّ مِنْ هَذَا الْوَجْهِ
"Whoever says three times when he gets up in the morning: 'A'udhu Billahis-Sami Al-'Alim Min Ash-Shaitanir-Rajim' and he recites three Ayat from the end of Surah Al-Hashr - Allah appoints seventy-thousand angels who say Salat upon him until the evening. If he dies on that day, he dies a martyr, and whoever reaches the evening, he holds the same status." Tirmidhee no. 2922

Hasan said, عَنْ الْحَسَنِ، قَالَ: «مَنْ قَرَأَ ثَلَاثَ آيَاتٍ مِنْ آخِرِ سُورَةِ الْحَشْرِ إِذَا أَصْبَحَ فَمَاتَ مِنْ يَوْمِهِ ذَلِكَ، طُبِعَ بِطَابَعِ الشُّهَدَاءِ، وَإِنْ قَرَأَ إِذَا أَمْسَى فَمَاتَ مِنْ لَيْلَتِهِ، طُبِعَ بِطَابَعِ الشُّهَدَاءِ Sunan Darimi 3421 [translation needed]

Special Features of the Surah

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Important key and unique words of the Surah

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123 Total Word Count per Ayat (shows how many words per Ayat) *

Period of Revelation

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Bukhari and Muslim contain a hadith from Sa’id bin Jubair to the effect “When I asked Abdullah bin Abbas about Surah Al-Hashr, he replied that it was sent down concerning the battle against the Banu-Nadheer just as Surah 8: al-Anfal (The Spoils of War) was sent down concerning the Battle of Badr. “As for the question as to when this battle took place, Imam Zuhri has stated on the authority of Urwah bin Zubair that it took place six months after the Battle of Badr. However, Ibn Sa’d, Ibn Hisham and Baladhuri regard it as an event of Rabi’ al-Awwal, 4 A.H.

Background Reasons for Revelation

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Relevant Hadith

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Lessons/Guidance/Major-Issues/Reflections

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  • The Jewish tribe of Banu Al-Nadhir is given the order of exile for their mutiny against the Islamic State.
  • Distribution of the belongings of Banu Al-Nadhir.
  • Historical background of the Jews (See commentary in following pages).
  • Good qualities of true immigrants and good qualities of true Ansar (the residents of Madinah).
  • Hypocrites conspiracy with the people of the Book (Jews).
  • The parable of a Shaitan vs. a disbeliever.
  • Let each soul see what it is sending for the Hereafter.
  • If the Qur'an was sent down upon a mountain it would have crumbled into pieces from the fear of Allah's disobedience.
  • Fifteen attributes of Allah in three verses: the God, the Knower of the Seen and the Unseen, the Compassionate, the Merciful, the King, the Holy, the Giver of peace, the Grantor of security, the Guardian,, the Almighty, the Irresistible, the Supreme and the Creator.

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Miscellaneous Issues

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