Overview - Surah 65: at-Talaq (The Divorce )

Surah Introduction

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This is a Madani Surah and like the following Surah, al-Tahrim, its speak about family rules.  The spouses should follow Allah’s rules whether they have disagreement with each other or they love each other. In this Surah the proper rules of divorce are given.  Do not just say the words of divorce and separate yourself from your wives, but give them their rights. It also reminds the Believers to obey Allah and His Messenger.  Those who disobey Allah are warned the consequences of their disobedience.

The Surah takes its name from the first Ayat, يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ إِذَا طَلَّقْتُمُ النِّسَاءَ فَطَلِّقُوهُنَّ لِعِدَّتِهِنَّ وَأَحْصُوا الْعِدَّةَ "O Prophet, when you [Muslims] divorce women, divorce them for [the commencement of] their waiting period and keep count of the waiting period...." [65:1].

There are 12 Ayat in this Surah.

Overview

Total Ayat12
Total Words *287
Root Words *102
Unique Root Words *0
Makki / MadaniMadani
Chronological Order* 99th (according to Ibn Abbas)
Year of Revelation* 17th year of Prophethood (4th Year Hijri)
Events during/before this Surah*
, Battle of Uhud, Change of Qiblah from Jerusalem to Makkah - Battle of Badr, Migration from Makkah to Madinah - Building of Masjid Nabi in Madinah - Treaty with Jews of Madinah - Marriage of Prophet to Aishah, , 2nd Pledge of Aqabah, 1st Pledge of Aqabah, Death of Abu Talib - Death of Khadijah - Stoning at Ta'if - al-Isra wal Mi'raj - Night Journey, Boycott of Banu Hashim Yr 3, Boycott of Banu Hashim Yr 2, Boycott of Banu Hashim Yr 1, 2nd Migration to Abyssinia, Physical beating and torture of some Muslims - 1st Migration of Muslims to Abyssinia, Public Invitation to Islam - Persecution of Muslims; antagonism - ridicule - derision - accusation - abuse and false propaganda., Revelation begins - Private Invitation to Islam , Revelation begins - Private Invitation to Islam , Revelation begins - Private Invitation to Islam
Events during/after still to occur*
Battle of Ahzab - Expedition of Banu Quraydhah,Treaty of Hudaiybiyah - Letters to Kings and Rulers,,Conquest of Makkah - Battle of Hunain,Hajj led by Abu Bakr - Expedition of Tabuk,Farewell Hajj by Prophet - Death of Prophet - End of Divine Revelation
Names of Prophets Mentioned
No Prophets names are mentioned in this Surah
Surah Index
Children, Divorce, Divorce (after waiting period) , Divorce (after waiting period) (two witnesses), Divorce (find wet-nurse if necessary) , Divorce (Man) (don’t harass wife), Divorce (Man) (during her pregnancy), Divorce (Man) (during her waiting period), Divorce (Man) (if she’s nursing your child), Divorce (Woman) (entitled to maintenance), Divorce (Woman) (not to be expelled from their homes), Divorce (Woman) (three month wait for those free of menstruation), Earth (creation and recreation of) , Heaven (several) , Resurrection (of soul)

Central Theme

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Theme 1: Taqwa of Allah is the cause for sound family life and a strong Ummah.

Connection of the name of the Surah and its Ayaat

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The Surah discusses issues pertaining to Talaq [divorce].

Connection between the beginning and the ending of the Surah

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The Surah starts and ends with the instruction to have Taqwah of Allah.

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ إِذَا طَلَّقْتُمُ النِّسَاءَ فَطَلِّقُوهُنَّ لِعِدَّتِهِنَّ وَأَحْصُوا الْعِدَّةَ ۖ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّـهَ رَبَّكُمْ "O Prophet, when you [Muslims] divorce women, divorce them for [the commencement of] their waiting period and keep count of the waiting period, and fear Allah, your Lord....." (65:1)

أَعَدَّ اللَّـهُ لَهُمْ عَذَابًا شَدِيدًا ۖ فَاتَّقُوا اللَّـهَ يَا أُولِي الْأَلْبَابِ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا ۚ قَدْ أَنزَلَ اللَّـهُ إِلَيْكُمْ ذِكْرًا "Allah has prepared for them a severe punishment; so fear Allah, O you of understanding who have believed. Allah has sent down to you the Qur'an"  (65:10)

Manuscripts / Inscriptions

Connection of the Surah to the Surah before/after it

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  • Surah at- Talaq [65] instructs that the limits of Allah must be observed even if one dislikes his wife and in Surah at-Tahreem [66] we have been guided to observe the limits set by Allah despite ones love for his wife. 
  • Surah at-Talaq [65] mentions in the first Ayat, if the Prophet was to divorce. In Surah at-Tahrim, we have the Ayat, "Perhaps his Lord, if he divorced you [all], would substitute for him wives better than you..." [66:5].

The Virtues of the Surah

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Special Features of the Surah

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Important key and unique words of the Surah

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  • Taqwa is a key term used in this Surah. This is a very important trait to have - those experiencing marital problems or divorce must endevour to have Taqwa.
    وَمَن يَتَّقِ اللَّـهَ يَجْعَل لَّهُ مِنْ أَمْرِهِ يُسْرًا "And whoever fears Allah - He will make for him of his matter ease." [65:4]

    وَمَن يَتَّقِ اللَّـهَ يُكَفِّرْ عَنْهُ سَيِّئَاتِهِ وَيُعْظِمْ لَهُ أَجْرًا "...and whoever fears Allah - He will remove for him his misdeeds and make great for him his reward." [65:5]

    فَاتَّقُوا اللَّـهَ يَا أُولِي الْأَلْبَابِ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا ۚ قَدْ أَنزَلَ اللَّـهُ إِلَيْكُمْ ذِكْرًا "... so fear Allah, O you of understanding who have believed. Allah has sent down to you the Qur'an." [65:10]

Period of Revelation

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Abdullah bin Masud (a famous companion) has pointed out, and the internal evidence of the subject matter of the Surah confirms the same, that it must have been sent down after the verses of Surah 2: al-Baqarah (The Cow) in which commandments concerning divorce were given for the first time.

Background Reasons for Revelation

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Relevant Hadith

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Lessons/Guidance/Major-Issues/Reflections

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  • Laws of divorce (for details see below).
  • Iddat (waiting period before the divorce takes effect) is commanded to be three menstruation periods, three months if menstruation is not applicable, and in case of pregnancy it is the delivery of child.
  • Rebellion against Allah's commandment may bring stern reckoning or exemplary punishment, so fear Allah and adhere to His laws.

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Miscellaneous Issues

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