Overview - Surah 112: al-Ikhlas (Sincerity)

Surah Introduction

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This is a great Surah of Tawhid.  It speaks about the oneness of Allah. The Surah is named al-Ikhlas - which can be translated  as 'pure, complete, sincerity'. Interestingly, the word does not appear in the Surah itself.

There are 4 Ayat in this Surah.

Overview

Total Ayat4
Total Words *15
Root Words *8
Unique Root Words *2
Makki / MadaniMakki
Chronological Order* 22nd (according to Ibn Abbas)
Year of Revelation* 5th year of Prophethood
Events during/before this Surah*
Physical beating and torture of some Muslims - 1st Migration of Muslims to Abyssinia, Public Invitation to Islam - Persecution of Muslims; antagonism - ridicule - derision - accusation - abuse and false propaganda., Revelation begins - Private Invitation to Islam , Revelation begins - Private Invitation to Islam , Revelation begins - Private Invitation to Islam
Events during/after still to occur*
2nd Migration to Abyssinia,Boycott of Banu Hashim Yr 1,Boycott of Banu Hashim Yr 2,Boycott of Banu Hashim Yr 3,Death of Abu Talib - Death of Khadijah - Stoning at Ta'if - al-Isra wal Mi'raj - Night Journey,1st Pledge of Aqabah,2nd Pledge of Aqabah,,Migration from Makkah to Madinah - Building of Masjid Nabi in Madinah - Treaty with Jews of Madinah - Marriage of Prophet to Aishah,Change of Qiblah from Jerusalem to Makkah - Battle of Badr,Battle of Uhud,,Battle of Ahzab - Expedition of Banu Quraydhah,Treaty of Hudaiybiyah - Letters to Kings and Rulers,,Conquest of Makkah - Battle of Hunain,Hajj led by Abu Bakr - Expedition of Tabuk,Farewell Hajj by Prophet - Death of Prophet - End of Divine Revelation
Names of Prophets Mentioned
No Prophets names are mentioned in this Surah
Surah Index
God (has no son)

Central Theme

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Theme 1: Tawhid

Connection of the name of the Surah and its Ayaat

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Pure sincerity. Performing actions only for His pleasure alone.

Connection between the beginning and the ending of the Surah

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Manuscripts / Inscriptions

Connection of the Surah to the Surah before/after it

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  • Surah al-Ikhlas [112], al-Falaq [113] and an-Nas [114] all begin with 'Qul' - Say....

The Virtues of the Surah

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  • حَدَّثَنَا عُقْبَةُ بْنُ مُكْرَمٍ الْعَمِّيُّ الْبَصْرِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ أَبِي فُدَيْكٍ، أَخْبَرَنَا سَلَمَةُ بْنُ وَرْدَانَ، عَنْ أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ لِرَجُلٍ مِنْ أَصْحَابِهِ ‏"‏ هَلْ تَزَوَّجْتَ يَا فُلاَنُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ لاَ وَاللَّهِ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ وَلاَ عِنْدِي مَا أَتَزَوَّجُ بِهِ ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏"‏ أَلَيْسَ مَعَكَ ‏(‏قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ ‏)‏ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ بَلَى ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏"‏ ثُلُثُ الْقُرْآنِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏"‏ أَلَيْسَ مَعَكَ ‏(‏ إِذَا جَاءَ نَصْرُ اللَّهِ وَالْفَتْحُ ‏)‏ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ بَلَى ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏"‏ رُبُعُ الْقُرْآنِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏"‏ أَلَيْسَ مَعَكَ قُلْ يَا أَيُّهَا الْكَافِرُونَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ بَلَى قَالَ ‏"‏ رُبُعُ الْقُرْآنِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏"‏ أَلَيْسَ مَعَكَ ‏(‏إِذَا زُلْزِلَتِ الأَرْضُ ‏)‏ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ بَلَى ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏"‏ رُبُعُ الْقُرْآنِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏"‏ تَزَوَّجْ تَزَوَّجْ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى هَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ

    Narrated Anas bin Malik: " that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said to a man among his Companions: "Have you married O so-and-so?" He said: "No by Allah O Messenger of Allah! And I do not have anything to marry with." He said: "Do you not know: Qul Huwa Allahu Ahad?" He said: "Of course." He said: "It is a third of the Qur'an." He said: "Do you not know Idha Ja Nasrullahi Wal-Fath?" He said: "Of course." He said: "It is a fourth of the Qur'an." He said: "Do you not know Qul Ya Ayyuhal-Kafirun?" He said: "Of course." He said: "It is a fourth of the Qur'an." He said: "Do you not know Idha Zulzilat Al-Ard?" He said: "Of course." He said: "It is a fourth of the Qur'an." He said: "Marry, marry." Tirmidhee no. 2895

  • حَدَّثَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ بْنُ سَعِيدٍ، حَدَّثَنَا الْمُفَضَّلُ، عَنْ عُقَيْلٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ عُرْوَةَ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم كَانَ إِذَا أَوَى إِلَى فِرَاشِهِ كُلَّ لَيْلَةٍ جَمَعَ كَفَّيْهِ ثُمَّ نَفَثَ فِيهِمَا فَقَرَأَ فِيهِمَا ‏{‏قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ‏}‏ وَ‏{‏قُلْ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ الْفَلَقِ‏}‏ وَ‏{‏قُلْ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ النَّاسِ‏}‏ ثُمَّ يَمْسَحُ بِهِمَا مَا اسْتَطَاعَ مِنْ جَسَدِهِ يَبْدَأُ بِهِمَا عَلَى رَأْسِهِ وَوَجْهِهِ وَمَا أَقْبَلَ مِنْ جَسَدِهِ يَفْعَلُ ذَلِكَ ثَلاَثَ مَرَّاتٍ‏.‏

    Narrated 'Aisha: Whenever the Prophet (ﷺ) went to bed every night, he used to cup his hands together and blow over it after reciting Surat Al-Ikhlas, Surat Al-Falaq and Surat An-Nas, and then rub his hands over whatever parts of his body he was able to rub, starting with his head, face and front of his body. He used to do that three times."  Sahih Bukhari no. 5017

  • حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ يُوسُفَ، أَخْبَرَنَا مَالِكٌ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ أَبِي صَعْصَعَةَ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ الْخُدْرِيِّ، أَنَّ رَجُلاً، سَمِعَ رَجُلاً، يَقْرَأُ ‏{‏قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ‏}‏ يُرَدِّدُهَا فَلَمَّا أَصْبَحَ جَاءَ إِلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَذَكَرَ ذَلِكَ لَهُ وَكَأَنَّ الرَّجُلَ يَتَقَالُّهَا فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ إِنَّهَا لَتَعْدِلُ ثُلُثَ الْقُرْآنِ ‏"

  • Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri: "A man heard another man reciting (Surat-Al-Ikhlas) 'Say He is Allah, (the) One.' (112. 1) repeatedly. The next morning he came to Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) and informed him about it as if he thought that it was not enough to recite. On that Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) said, "By Him in Whose Hand my life is, this Surah is equal to one-third of the Qur'an!" Sahih Bukhari no. 5013

  • وَقَالَ عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ عَنْ ثَابِتٍ، عَنْ أَنَسٍ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ كَانَ رَجُلٌ مِنَ الأَنْصَارِ يَؤُمُّهُمْ فِي مَسْجِدِ قُبَاءٍ، وَكَانَ كُلَّمَا افْتَتَحَ سُورَةً يَقْرَأُ بِهَا لَهُمْ فِي الصَّلاَةِ مِمَّا يَقْرَأُ بِهِ افْتَتَحَ بِ ـ ‏{‏قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ‏}‏ حَتَّى يَفْرُغَ مِنْهَا، ثُمَّ يَقْرَأُ سُورَةً أُخْرَى مَعَهَا، وَكَانَ يَصْنَعُ ذَلِكَ فِي كُلِّ رَكْعَةٍ، فَكَلَّمَهُ أَصْحَابُهُ فَقَالُوا إِنَّكَ تَفْتَتِحُ بِهَذِهِ السُّورَةِ، ثُمَّ لاَ تَرَى أَنَّهَا تُجْزِئُكَ حَتَّى تَقْرَأَ بِأُخْرَى، فَإِمَّا أَنْ تَقْرَأَ بِهَا وَإِمَّا أَنْ تَدَعَهَا وَتَقْرَأَ بِأُخْرَى‏.‏ فَقَالَ مَا أَنَا بِتَارِكِهَا، إِنْ أَحْبَبْتُمْ أَنْ أَؤُمَّكُمْ بِذَلِكَ فَعَلْتُ، وَإِنْ كَرِهْتُمْ تَرَكْتُكُمْ‏.‏ وَكَانُوا يَرَوْنَ أَنَّهُ مِنْ أَفْضَلِهِمْ، وَكَرِهُوا أَنْ يَؤُمَّهُمْ غَيْرُهُ، فَلَمَّا أَتَاهُمُ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَخْبَرُوهُ الْخَبَرَ فَقَالَ ‏"‏ يَا فُلاَنُ مَا يَمْنَعُكَ أَنْ تَفْعَلَ مَا يَأْمُرُكَ بِهِ أَصْحَابُكَ وَمَا يَحْمِلُكَ عَلَى لُزُومِ هَذِهِ السُّورَةِ فِي كُلِّ رَكْعَةٍ ‏"‏‏.‏ فَقَالَ إِنِّي أُحِبُّهَا‏.‏ فَقَالَ ‏"‏ حُبُّكَ إِيَّاهَا أَدْخَلَكَ الْجَنَّةَ ‏"‏‏.

    Anas said: "One of the Ansar used to lead the Ansar in Salat in the Quba' mosque and it was his habit to recite Qul Huwal-lahu Ahad whenever he wanted to recite something in Salat. When he finished that Surah, he would recite another one with it. He followed the same procedure in each Rak'a. His companions discussed this with him and said, "You recite this Surah and do not consider it sufficient and then you recite another. So would you recite it alone or leave it and recite some other." He said, "I will never leave it and if you want me to be your Imam on this condition then it is all right ; otherwise I will leave you." They knew that he was the best amongst them and they did not like someone else to lead them in Salat. When the Prophet (ﷺ) went to them as usual, they informed him about it. The Prophet (ﷺ) addressed him and said, "O so-and-so, what forbids you from doing what your companions ask you to do ? Why do you read this Surah particularly in every Rak'a ?" He repiled, "I love this Surah." The Prophet (ﷺ) said, "Your love for this Surah will make you enter Paradise."‏ Sahih Bukhari no. 774b 

  • حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ صَالِحٍ، حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ وَهْبٍ، حَدَّثَنَا عَمْرٌو، عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي هِلاَلٍ، أَنَّ أَبَا الرِّجَالِ، مُحَمَّدَ بْنَ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ حَدَّثَهُ عَنْ أُمِّهِ، عَمْرَةَ بِنْتِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ وَكَانَتْ فِي حَجْرِ عَائِشَةَ زَوْجِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَنْ عَائِشَةَ أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم بَعَثَ رَجُلاً عَلَى سَرِيَّةٍ، وَكَانَ يَقْرَأُ لأَصْحَابِهِ فِي صَلاَتِهِ فَيَخْتِمُ بِ ـ ‏{‏قُلْ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ‏}‏ فَلَمَّا رَجَعُوا ذَكَرُوا ذَلِكَ لِلنَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ ‏"‏ سَلُوهُ لأَىِّ شَىْءٍ يَصْنَعُ ذَلِكَ ‏"‏‏.‏ فَسَأَلُوهُ فَقَالَ لأَنَّهَا صِفَةُ الرَّحْمَنِ، وَأَنَا أُحِبُّ أَنْ أَقْرَأَ بِهَا‏.‏ فَقَالَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ أَخْبِرُوهُ أَنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّهُ ‏"‏‏.‏

  • Narrated `Aisha: "The Prophet (ﷺ) sent (an army unit) under the command of a man who used to lead his companions in the prayers and would finish his recitation with (the Sura 112): 'Say (O Muhammad): "He is Allah, the One." ' (112.1) When they returned (from the battle), they mentioned that to the Prophet. He said (to them), "Ask him why he does so." They asked him and he said, "I do so because it mentions the qualities of the Beneficent and I love to recite it (in my prayer)." The Prophet; said (to them), "Tell him that Allah loves him." Sahih Bukhari no. 7375

  • حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ بْنُ حُمَيْدٍ، حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ أَبِي فُدَيْكٍ، حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ أَبِي ذِئْبٍ، عَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ الْبَرَّادِ، عَنْ مُعَاذِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ خُبَيْبٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، قَالَ خَرَجْنَا فِي لَيْلَةٍ مَطِيرَةٍ وَظُلْمَةٍ شَدِيدَةٍ نَطْلُبُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يُصَلِّي لَنَا - قَالَ - فَأَدْرَكْتُهُ فَقَالَ ‏"‏ قُلْ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ فَلَمْ أَقُلْ شَيْئًا ثُمَّ قَالَ ‏"‏ قُلْ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ فَلَمْ أَقُلْ شَيْئًا ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏"‏ قُلْ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قُلْتُ مَا أَقُولُ قَالَ ‏"‏ قُلْ ‏:‏ ‏(‏ هوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ ‏)‏ وَالْمُعَوِّذَتَيْنِ حِينَ تُمْسِي وَتُصْبِحُ ثَلاَثَ مَرَّاتٍ تَكْفِيكَ مِنْ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ ‏"‏ ‏.‏  

    Mu`adh bin `Abdullah bin Khubaib, narrated from his father, who said: " “We went out on a rainy and extremely dark night, looking for the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ), so that he could lead us in Salat.” He said: “So I met him and he (ﷺ) said: ‘Speak’ but I did not say anything. Then he (ﷺ) said: ‘Speak.’ But I did not say anything. He (ﷺ) said: ‘Speak.’ So I said: ‘What should I say?’ He (ﷺ) said: ‘Say: “Say: He is Allah, the One” and Al-Mu`awwidhatain, when you reach evening, and when you reach morning, three times, they will suffice you against everything.’” Tirmidhi no. 3575
     

Special Features of the Surah

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Important key and unique words of the Surah

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123 Total Word Count per Ayat (shows how many words per Ayat) *

Unique Root Words to this Surah only


2 unique root words that do not appear in any other Surah *

Top 10 Most Frequent Root Words used in this Surah

Root Word Frequency
in Surah
Frequency
in Qur'an
أ ل ه 2 2851
أ ح د 2 85
و ل د 2 102
ق و ل 1 1722
ص م د 1 1
ك و ن 1 1390
ك ف أ 1 1

Period of Revelation

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Background Reasons for Revelation

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Relevant Hadith

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  • A man said: "O Messenger of Allah! I love Surat-Al-Ikhlas [Say: He is Allah, (the) One]." He (ﷺ) said, "Your love for it will admit you to Jannah." [At-Tirmidhi]

Lessons/Guidance/Major-Issues/Reflections

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Miscellaneous Issues

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