Surah al-Ma'idah (The Table) 5 : 72

لَقَدْ كَفَرَ ٱلَّذِينَ قَالُوٓا۟ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ هُوَ ٱلْمَسِيحُ ٱبْنُ مَرْيَمَ ۖ وَقَالَ ٱلْمَسِيحُ يَٰبَنِىٓ إِسْرَٰٓءِيلَ ٱعْبُدُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ رَبِّى وَرَبَّكُمْ ۖ إِنَّهُۥ مَن يُشْرِكْ بِٱللَّهِ فَقَدْ حَرَّمَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ ٱلْجَنَّةَ وَمَأْوَىٰهُ ٱلنَّارُ ۖ وَمَا لِلظَّٰلِمِينَ مِنْ أَنصَارٍ

Translations

 
 Muhsin Khan
 Pickthall
 Yusuf Ali
Quran Project
They have certainly disbelieved who say, "Allāh is the Messiah, the son of Mary" while the Messiah has said, "O Children of Israel, worship Allāh, my Lord and your Lord." Indeed, he who associates others with Allāh - Allāh has forbidden him Paradise, and his refuge is the Fire. And there are not for the wrongdoers any helpers.

1. Lessons/Guidance/Reflections/Gems

[ edit ]

Explanatory Note

God, limitless is He in His glory, says that all these assertions are false and represent unbelief. As we have seen, they include the claim that the Christ has a Divine nature, and they claim that God is the third of a trinity. God has the final say on all questions. He always says the truth and He guides to the right path. We see how Jesus Christ himself (peace be upon him) has warned them, but they paid no heed. After he departed from them, they followed the deviant path he warned them against, because it is certain to forbid them entrance into Paradise and make them suffer in the fire of Hell. They forgot what Christ told them: “Children of Israel, worship God, my Lord and your Lord.” He declared to them that he and they stood in the same position of servitude to God, the One God who has no partners.

 

2. Linguistic Analysis

[ edit ]
The data for this section is awaiting to be be uploaded. Be the first to contribute.


Frequency of Root words in this Ayat used in this Surah *


3. Surah Overview

4. Miscellaneous Information

[ edit ]
The data for this section is awaiting to be be uploaded. Be the first to contribute.

5. Connected/Related Ayat

[ edit ]
The data for this section is awaiting to be be uploaded. Be the first to contribute.

6. Frequency of the word

[ edit ]
The data for this section is awaiting to be be uploaded. Be the first to contribute.

7. Period of Revelation

[ edit ]

The theme of this Surah indicates and traditions support it, that it was revealed after the treaty of Hudaibiyah at the end of 6 A.H. or in the beginning of 7 A.H.

The Prophet set out along with 1400 Muslims to Makkah in 6 A.H. to perform Umrah (the lesser pilgrimage). Even though it was against all the ancient religious traditions of Arabia – the Quraysh prevented them. After a fair amount of negotiation,  a treaty was concluded at Hudaibiyah according to which it was agreed that he would be allowed to perform Umrah the following year. This is why the introductory verses deal with with the pilgrimage to Makkah and the same theme has been resumed in v. 101-104. The other topics of this Surah also appear to belong to the same period. [REF: Mawdudi]

8. Reasons for Revelation

[ edit ]

The general attitude towards the Muslims had now changed since the revelation of the previous Surahs 3: Al-Imran (Family of Imran) and Surah 4: An-Nisa (The Women)

Islam had become a force and the Islamic State had extended to Najd on the east, to the Red Sea on the west, to Syria on the north, and to Makkah on the south. The set-back which the Muslims had suffered at Uhud had not broken their determination. It had rather spurred them to action. As a result of their continuous struggle and unparalleled sacrifices the power of the surrounding clans within a radius of 200 miles or so had been subdued. The conspiracies of the Jewish tribes -  which had always threatened Madinah -  were totally removed and the Jews in other parts of the Arabian Peninsula (Hijaz) had become tributaries of the State of Madinah. The last effort of the Quraysh to suppress Islam had been thwarted in the Battle of the Ditch. After this it had become quite obvious to the Arabs that no power could suppress the Islamic movement.

Islam was no longer merely a creed which ruled over the minds and hearts of the people but had also become a State which dominated over every aspect of the life of the people who lived within its boundaries. This had enabled the Muslims to live their lives without any hindrance in accordance with their beliefs.

Another development had also taken place during this period. The Muslim state had developed in accordance with the principles of Islam and this was quite distinct from all other civilisations in all its details. It identified the Muslims clearly from the non-Muslims in their moral, social and cultural behaviour. Mosques had been built in all territories, prayer had been established and a leader (Imam) for every habitation and clan had been appointed. The Islamic civil and criminal laws had been formulated in detail and were being enforced through the Islamic courts. New and reformed ways of trade and commerce had taken the place of the old ones. The Islamic laws of marriage and divorce, of the segregation of the sexes, of the punishment for adultery and slander and the like had cast the social life of the Muslims in a special mould. Their social behaviour, their conversation, their dress, their very mode of living, their culture etc., had taken a definite shape of its own. As a result of all these changes, the non-Muslims could not expect that the Muslims would ever return to their former ways. Before the treaty of Hudaibiyah, the Muslims were so engaged in their struggle with the non-Muslim Quraysh that had little time to propagate their message. This was resolved by what was apparently a defeat but in reality a victory at Hudaibiyah. This gave the Muslims not only peace in their own territory but also respite to spread their message in the surrounding territories. Accordingly, the Prophet addressed letters to the chiefs of Arabia, the rulers of Persia, Egypt and the Roman Empire inviting them to Islam. At the same time the missionaries of Islam spread among the clans and tribes and invited them to accept the Divine Way of God. These were the circumstances at the time when al- Ma’idah was revealed.

9. Relevant Hadith

[ edit ]
The data for this section is awaiting to be be uploaded. Be the first to contribute.

10. Wiki Forum

Comments in this section are statements made by general users – these are not necessarily explanations of the Ayah – rather a place to share personal thoughts and stories…

11. Tafsir Zone

 

Overview (Verses 72- 74)

Misconceptions Leading to Disbelief
 
Such was the situation with regard to the Jews among the people of earlier revelations. The situation with regard to Christians is explained in the sūrah in a most decisive manner which clearly fits with its general tone and with the question under discussion.
 
Early in the sūrah, those who claim that the Christ, son of Mary, was God are described as unbelievers. At this point, this description is re-emphasised with regard to those who claim that God is a third of a trinity or allege that Jesus Christ, son of Mary, was God Himself. The sūrah combines this with a testimony by Jesus (peace be upon him) that they are unbelievers. He warns them against ascribing Divinity to anyone other than God Almighty. He acknowledges very clearly that God is his Lord and their Lord. This is concluded by a warning by God Himself against continuing with their unbelief represented by their own statements which cannot be uttered by people who believe in God and in the right faith.
 
Unbelievers indeed are those who say: “God is the Christ, son of Mary.” The Christ himself said: Children of Israel, worship God, my Lord and your Lord. Whoever associates partners with God, God shall forbid him entrance into Paradise and his abode will be the Fire. Wrongdoers will have no helpers. Unbelievers indeed are those who say: “God is the third of a trinity.” Of certain, there is no god save the One God. Unless they desist from so saying, grievous suffering will surely befall those of them who are unbelievers. Will they not, then, turn to God in repentance and seek His forgiveness? God is Much-Forgiving, Merciful. The Christ, son of Mary, was but a Messenger: other messengers have passed away before him. His mother was a saintly woman. They both ate food [like other human beings]. Behold how clear We make [Our] revelations to them and behold how perverted they are. Say: Would you worship in place of God anything that has no power to harm or to benefit you? It is God alone who hears all and knows all. Say: People of earlier revelations! Do not overstep the bounds of truth in your religious beliefs, and do not follow the vain desires of those who have gone astray in the past, and have led many others astray and are still straying from the right path. (Verses 72-7)
 
We have already given a brief explanation of how and when these deviant assertions crept into the Christian faith, which was preached by Jesus (peace be upon him), a Messenger of God. Like his brothers, God’s Messengers, he preached the principle of God’s oneness in its purity, unadulterated by even the slightest shred of idolatry or polytheism. All Divine messages had the common goal of establishing the principle of God’s oneness, calling on mankind to believe in it, and reject all pagan beliefs. We will mention ere briefly the conclusions which those synods endorsed, advocating the concept of trinity and that of the divinity of Jesus Chris and their subsequent disagreements.
 
Nawfal ibn Ni`matullāh ibn Girgīs of Nazareth says: the Christian faith on which all churches agree and which represents the basis of the constitution agreed by the synod is to believe in the One God: a single father, the Almighty, the creator of the heavens and the earth and what is seen and what is unseen, and to believe in a single lord, Jesus, the only son born to the father prior to all times and created of God’s light. He is a true god originating from a true god, born but not created, equal to the father in essence and from whom everything derives its existence. It is for the sake of us human beings and for the atonement of our sins he descended from heaven. He took shape from the Holy Spirit, and took form from the Virgin Mary, and was crucified on our behalf at the time of Pilate, and suffered and was buried and then rose from the dead on the third day according to what is written in the books. He then rose to heaven and sat to the right of the Lord. He will come down again with glory to make the living and the dead submit. His kingdom will be everlasting. The Christian faith also requires believing in the Holy Spirit, the lord who gives life and who comes from the father. Together with the son he submits to Him and glorifies Him. He speaks to prophets.
 
In Muĥāđarāt fī al-Naşrāniyah, Muĥammad Abū Zahrah quotes a historian of Christian Faith who mentions that the nature of God comprises three equal consecutive elements: God the Father, God the Son and God the Holy Spirit. To the Father, all creation belongs through the Son; the Son has the atonement; and the Holy Spirit gives purification.
 
Because of the difficulty of formulating a clear concept which combines the three elements in one and reconciling God’s oneness with the trinity, Christian theologians have always tried to evade rational discussion of this paradoxical question. The theologian Potter writes in a paper entitled “Principles and Details”: “We have understood this as far as our reason can cope with it. We hope to understand it more clearly in future when everything in the heavens and on earth will be revealed to us. As for the present, the measure of our understanding is sufficient.”
 
God, limitless is He in His glory, says that all these assertions are false and represent unbelief. As we have seen, they include the claim that the Christ has a Divine nature, and they claim that God is the third of a trinity. God has the final say on all questions. He always says the truth and He guides to the right path.
 
“Unbelievers indeed are those who say: “God is the Christ, son of Mary.” The Christ himself said: Children of Israel, worship God, my Lord and your Lord. Whoever associates partners with God, God shall forbid him entrance into Paradise and his abode will be the Fire. Wrongdoers will have no helpers.” (Verse 72) We see how Jesus Christ himself (peace be upon him) has warned them, but they paid no heed. After he departed from them, they followed the deviant path he warned them against, because it is certain to forbid them entrance into Paradise and make them suffer in the fire of Hell. They forgot what Christ told them: “Children of Israel, worship God, my Lord and your Lord.” He declared to them that he and they stood in the same position of servitude to God, the One God who has no partners.
 
The Qur’ān makes a final judgement on all their blasphemous claims: “Unbelievers are those indeed who say: ‘God is the third of a trinity.’” (Verse 73) It states the truth which constitutes the basis of every faith preached by every one of God’s Messengers: “Of certain, there is no god save the One God.” (Verse 73) It threatens them with the punishment prepared for those who make such blasphemous assertions and believe in them: “Unless they desist from so saying, grievous suffering will surely befall those of them who are unbelievers.” (Verse 73) The unbelievers are the ones who continue to make such assertions which God has ruled to be a clear denial of faith.
 
These stern warnings are followed by encouragement and persuasion: “Will they not, then, turn to God in repentance and seek His forgiveness? God is Much-Forgiving, Merciful.” (Verse 74) The door to repentance and forgiveness is, thus, left open. God’s forgiveness and mercy are certain to be forthcoming, if sought before it is too late.
 


12. External Links

[ edit ]
The data for this section is awaiting to be be uploaded. Be the first to contribute.