Surah an-Nisa' (Women ) 4 : 102

وَإِذَا كُنتَ فِيهِمْ فَأَقَمْتَ لَهُمُ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ فَلْتَقُمْ طَآئِفَةٌ مِّنْهُم مَّعَكَ وَلْيَأْخُذُوٓا۟ أَسْلِحَتَهُمْ فَإِذَا سَجَدُوا۟ فَلْيَكُونُوا۟ مِن وَرَآئِكُمْ وَلْتَأْتِ طَآئِفَةٌ أُخْرَىٰ لَمْ يُصَلُّوا۟ فَلْيُصَلُّوا۟ مَعَكَ وَلْيَأْخُذُوا۟ حِذْرَهُمْ وَأَسْلِحَتَهُمْ ۗ وَدَّ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ لَوْ تَغْفُلُونَ عَنْ أَسْلِحَتِكُمْ وَأَمْتِعَتِكُمْ فَيَمِيلُونَ عَلَيْكُم مَّيْلَةً وَٰحِدَةً ۚ وَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ إِن كَانَ بِكُمْ أَذًى مِّن مَّطَرٍ أَوْ كُنتُم مَّرْضَىٰٓ أَن تَضَعُوٓا۟ أَسْلِحَتَكُمْ ۖ وَخُذُوا۟ حِذْرَكُمْ ۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ أَعَدَّ لِلْكَٰفِرِينَ عَذَابًا مُّهِينًا

Translations

 
 Muhsin Khan
 Pickthall
 Yusuf Ali
Quran Project
And when you [i.e., the commander of an army] are among them and lead them in prayer, let a group of them stand [in prayer] with you and let them carry their arms. And when they have prostrated, let them be [in position] behind you and have the other group come forward which has not [yet] prayed and let them pray with you, taking precaution and carrying their arms. Those who disbelieve wish that you would neglect your weapons and your baggage so they could come down upon you in one [single] attack. But there is no blame upon you, if you are troubled by rain or are ill, for putting down your arms, but take precaution. Indeed, Allāh has prepared for the disbelievers a humiliating punishment.

Qur'an Dictionary

Click word/image to view Qur'an Dictionary
Word Arabic word
(4:102:1)
wa-idhā
And when
(4:102:2)
kunta
you are
(4:102:3)

(4:102:4)
fa-aqamta
and you lead
(4:102:5)

(4:102:6)
l-ṣalata
the prayer
(4:102:7)
faltaqum
then let stand
(4:102:8)
ṭāifatun
a group
(4:102:9)

(4:102:10)

(4:102:11)
walyakhudhū
and let them take
(4:102:12)
asliḥatahum
their arms
(4:102:13)
fa-idhā
Then when
(4:102:14)
sajadū
they have prostrated
(4:102:15)
falyakūnū
then let them be
(4:102:16)

(4:102:17)
warāikum
behind you
(4:102:18)
waltati
and let come (forward)
(4:102:19)
ṭāifatun
a group
(4:102:20)
ukh'rā
other
(4:102:21)

(4:102:22)
yuṣallū
prayed
(4:102:23)
falyuṣallū
and let them pray
(4:102:24)

(4:102:25)
walyakhudhū
and let them take
(4:102:26)
ḥidh'rahum
their precautions
(4:102:27)
wa-asliḥatahum
and their arms
(4:102:28)
wadda
Wished
(4:102:29)
alladhīna
those who
(4:102:30)
kafarū
disbelieved
(4:102:31)

(4:102:32)
taghfulūna
you neglect
(4:102:33)

(4:102:34)
asliḥatikum
your arms
(4:102:35)
wa-amtiʿatikum
and your baggage
(4:102:36)
fayamīlūna
so (that) they (can) assault
(4:102:37)

(4:102:38)
maylatan
(in) an attack
(4:102:39)
wāḥidatan
single
(4:102:40)

(4:102:41)
junāḥa
blame
(4:102:42)

(4:102:43)

(4:102:44)
kāna
was
(4:102:45)

(4:102:46)
adhan
any trouble
(4:102:47)

(4:102:48)
maṭarin
rain
(4:102:49)

(4:102:50)
kuntum
you are
(4:102:51)
marḍā
sick
(4:102:52)

(4:102:53)
taḍaʿū
you lay down
(4:102:54)
asliḥatakum
your arms
(4:102:55)
wakhudhū
but take
(4:102:56)
ḥidh'rakum
your precautions
(4:102:57)

(4:102:58)
l-laha
Allah
(4:102:59)
aʿadda
has prepared
(4:102:60)
lil'kāfirīna
for the disbelievers
(4:102:61)
ʿadhāban
a punishment
(4:102:62)
muhīnan
humiliating

1. Lessons/Guidance/Reflections/Gems

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Explanatory Note

When you go forth on earth, you will incur no sin by shortening your prayers, if you have reason to fear that the unbelievers may cause you affliction. Truly, the unbelievers are your sworn enemies. When you are with the believers and about to lead them in prayer, let one group of them stand up with you, holding on to their weapons. Then, after they have prostrated themselves, let them be behind you, while the other group, who have not yet prayed, shall come forward and pray with you, and let these be on their guard, holding on to their weapons. The unbelievers would love to see you oblivious of your weapons and your equipment, so that they might swoop on you with one assault. But it is no offence for you to lay down your arms [while you pray] if you are bothered by heavy rain, or suffering from illness; but you must always be on your guard. God has prepared humiliating suffering for the unbelievers. (Verses 101-102)

The verse suggests that when the Prophet leads the believers in prayer in battle, a section of them join him in the first rak`ah, while the other section stand behind them, weapons in hand, to protect them. When the first group complete the first rak`ah, they step back to take over the guard duty, while the other group who were guarding them step forward to join the Prophet in praying one rak`ah as well. When the imām finishes his two rak`ahs, he concludes his prayers. Then the first group complete their prayer with a second rak`ah, guarded by the second group. When they have finished, the second group completes their second rak`ah, while they are guarded by the first group. In this way, both groups have joined the Prophet in prayer, and the same applies to those who succeed him as heads of state or with the commanders of the Muslim armies.
 
Great emphasis is placed on the fact that Muslims need always to be on their guard: “Let these be on their guard, holding on to their weapons. The unbelievers would love to see you oblivious of your weapons and your equipment, so that they might swoop on you with one assault.” (Verse 102) This statement speaks of a wish always entertained by the unbelievers. This has been confirmed across the centuries. It is for this reason that God takes care to explain it to the first Muslim generation as He defines their general plan of the battle. He even occasionally lays down their operational plan, as we have seen in the detailed instructions outlining how the Muslims should offer their prayers when they are in a state of fear.
 
The extra care required to be taken by the believers, and their total psychological mobilisation need not over afflict the believers. They implement it as best they can: “But it is no offence for you to lay down your arms [while you pray] if you are bothered by heavy rain, or suffering from illness; but you must always be on your guard.” (Verse 102) In such cases, taking up one’s arms may incur extra bother.
 
It may be sufficient only to be on one’s guard, praying for God’s help and the eventual victory: “But you must always be on your guard. God has prepared humiliating suffering for the unbelievers.” (Verse 102) It may be that through the continuous vigil and care taken by the believers that God brings about the humiliation and suffering which the unbelievers are certain to endure. Thus the believers may be the means through which God’s will is done. This, in itself, gives them more reassurance and confidence that victory is to be theirs.
 

2. Linguistic Analysis

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Frequency of Root words in this Ayat used in this Surah *


3. Surah Overview

4. Miscellaneous Information

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5. Connected/Related Ayat

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6. Frequency of the word

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7. Period of Revelation

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This Surah comprises several discourses which were revealed on different occasions during the period ranging probably between the end of year 3 A.H. and the end of 4 A.H. or the beginning of 5 A.H. Although it is difficult to determine the exact dates of their revelations it is possible to assign to them a fairly correct period with the help of the Commandments and the events mentioned therein. A few instances are given below by way of illustration:

1. We know that the inheritance law for those martyred and protection for the rights of the orphans was sent down after the Battle of Uhud (in which 70 Muslims were martyred). From this we conclude that v. 1 -28 were revealed on that occasion.

2. We learn from the traditions that the ruling regarding the prayer (Salah) during war time was given on the occasion of the Zat-ur-Riqa’aan expedition. This took place in 4 A.H. From this we conclude that the discourse containing v. 102 was revealed on that occasion.

3. The last warning to the Jews was given before the Banu-Nadheer were exiled from Madinah in Rabi’-ulAwwal 4 A.H. It may therefore be assumed that the discourse containing v. 47 was revealed before that date.

4. The permission about performing ablution with dust in the event of no water (tayammum) verse 43, was given during the Bani-al-Mustaliq expedition which took place in 5 A.H. [REF: Mawdudi]

8. Reasons for Revelation

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Let us now consider the social and historical considerations of the period in order to understand the Surah. All the discourses in this Surah deal with three main problems which confronted the Prophet at the time. First of all he was engaged in bringing about an all round development of the islamic Community that had been formed at the time of his migration to Madinah. For this purpose he was introducing new moral cultural social economic and political ways in place of the old ones of the pre-islamic period. The second thing that occupied his attention and efforts was the bitter struggle that was going on with the polytheist Arabs, the Jewish clans and the hypocrites who were opposing tooth and nail his mission of reform. Above all, he had to propagate Islam in the face of the bitter opposition of these powers of evil with a view to capturing more and more minds and hearts.

Accordingly detailed instructions have been given for the consolidation and strengthening of the islamic Community in continuation of those given in Surah 2: Al-Baqarah (The Cow). Principles for the smooth running of family life have been laid down and ways of settling family disputes have been taught. Rules have been prescribed for marriage and rights of wife and husband have been apportioned fairly and equitably. The status of women in the society has been determined and the declaration of the rights of orphans has been made. Laws and regulations have been laid down for the division of inheritance and instructions have been given to reform economic affairs. The foundation of the penal code has been laid down, drinking has been prohibited and instructions have been given for cleanliness and purity. The Muslims have been taught the kind of relations good men should have with their God and fellow men. Instructions have been given for the maintenance of discipline in the Muslim Community.

The moral and religious condition of The People of the Book (Jews and Christians) has been reviewed to teach lessons to the Muslims and to forewarn them to refrain from following in their footsteps. The conduct of the hypocrites has been criticized and the distinctive features of hypocrisy and true faith have been clearly marked off to enable the Muslims to distinguish between the two. In order to cope with the aftermath of the Battle of Uhud, Inspiring discourses were sent down to urge the Muslims to face the enemy bravely, for defeat in the Battle had so emboldened the polytheist Arab clans and the neighbouring Jews and the hypocrites at home, that they were threatening the Muslims on all sides. At this critical juncture God filled the Muslims with courage and gave them such instructions as were needed during that period of war clouds. In order to counteract the fearful rumours that were being spread by the hypocrites and the Muslims of weak faith they were asked to make a thorough enquiry into them and to inform the responsible people about them. Then they were experiencing some difficulties in offering their prayer during the expeditions to some places where no water was available for performing their ablutions etc. In such cases they were allowed to cleanse themselves with pure earth and to shorten the prayer or to offer the “Prayer of Fear” when they were faced with danger. Instructions were also given for the solution of the puzzling problem of those Muslims who were scattered among the unbelieving Arab clans and were often involved in war. They were asked to migrate to Madinah the abode of Islam.

This Surah also deals with the case of Banu nadir who were showing a hostile and menacing attitude in spite of the peace treaties they had made with the Muslims. They were openly siding with the enemies of Islam and hatching plots against the Prophet and the Muslim Community even at Madinah itself. They were taken to task for their inimical behaviour and given a final warning to change their attitude and were at last exiled from Madinah on account of their misconduct.

The problem of the hypocrites, who had become very troublesome at that time, was involving the Believers in difficulties. Therefore, they were divided into different categories to enable the Muslims to deal with them appropriately. Clear instructions were also given regarding the attitude they should adopt towards the non-belligerent clans. The most important thing needed at that time was to prepare the Muslims for the bitter struggle with the opponents of Islam. For this purpose greatest importance was attached to their character building, for it was obvious that the small Muslim Community could only come out successful, nay, survive, if the Muslims possessed high moral character. They were, therefore, enjoined to adopt the highest moral qualities and were severely criticized whenever any moral weakness was detected in them.

Though this Surah mainly deals with the moral and social reforms, yet due attention has been paid to propagation of Islam. On the one hand, the superiority of the islamic morality and culture has been established over that of the Jews, Christians and polytheists; on the other hand, their wrong religious conceptions, their wrong morality and their evil acts have been criticized to prepare the ground for inviting them to the way of the Truth. 

9. Relevant Hadith

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