Surah Ale-Imran (The Family Of Imran ) 3 : 28

لَّا يَتَّخِذِ ٱلْمُؤْمِنُونَ ٱلْكَٰفِرِينَ أَوْلِيَآءَ مِن دُونِ ٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ ۖ وَمَن يَفْعَلْ ذَٰلِكَ فَلَيْسَ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ فِى شَىْءٍ إِلَّآ أَن تَتَّقُوا۟ مِنْهُمْ تُقَىٰةً ۗ وَيُحَذِّرُكُمُ ٱللَّهُ نَفْسَهُۥ ۗ وَإِلَى ٱللَّهِ ٱلْمَصِيرُ

Translations

 
 Muhsin Khan
 Pickthall
 Yusuf Ali
Quran Project
Let not Believers take disbelievers as allies [i.e., supporters or protectors] rather than Believers. And whoever [of you] does that has nothing [i.e., no association] with Allāh, except when taking precaution against them in prudence. And Allāh warns you of Himself, and to Allāh is the [final] destination.

1. Lessons/Guidance/Reflections/Gems

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Explanatory Note

In the preceding passage, the sūrah placed much emphasis on the fact that all power belongs to God, Who is in absolute control of the universe and Who alone provides sustenance to all His creation. How, then, can a believer be justified in forming an alliance with the enemies of God? True faith in God cannot be combined with an alliance with, or patronage of the enemies of God, who are themselves called upon to implement God’s revelations, but who instead turn their backs in contempt.
 
Hence, we have this very stern warning in verse 28, making it absolutely clear that a Muslim disowns Islam if he forges a relationship of alliance or patronage with someone who refuses to acknowledge God’s revelation as the arbiter in life: “Let not the believers take unbelievers for their allies in preference to the believers. He who does this has cut himself off from God.” What a decisive statement! He has cut himself off from God. He has no relationship whatsoever with Him: no faith, no tie, no support. He never comes near to God nor has any contact with Him whatsoever.
 
Concessions are only granted to those who find themselves in a state of fear. Such people may try to protect themselves by pretending to support the unbelievers, but this must be understood to be only a verbal support given for a specific purpose. It cannot be an expression of any firmly established alliance or deeply rooted love. Ibn `Abbās says: “The concession here must not be understood as to seek protection through acting in support of unbelievers; it must be limited only to verbal statements.” There is no concession whatsoever for a relationship of love between a believer and an unbeliever. It is implied here and explicitly stated elsewhere in this sūrah that an unbeliever is a person who does not accept that God’s revelation be implemented in all aspects of life. Nor does this concession permit a believer to aid an unbeliever, in any form or way, pretending that he only seeks to protect himself. God cannot be so deceived.
 
Since the case here is one of conscience and the control is exercised only through the fear of God, Who knows everything, the warning to the believer against God’s punishment§ is given in a most unfamiliar mode of expression: “God warns you to beware of Him: for to God you shall all return.”

2. Linguistic Analysis

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Frequency of Root words in this Ayat used in this Surah *


3. Surah Overview

4. Miscellaneous Information

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5. Connected/Related Ayat

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6. Frequency of the word

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7. Period of Revelation

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“This Surah consists of four discourses:

  • The first discourse (v. 1-32) was probably revealed soon after the Battle of Badr.
  • The second discourse (v. 33-63) was revealed in 9 A.H. (After Hijrah - migration from Makkah to Madinah) on the occasion of the visit of the deputation from the Christians of Najran.
  • The third discourse (v. 64-120) appears to have been revealed immediately after the first one.
  • The fourth discourse (v. 121-200) was revealed after the Battle of Uhud.” [Mawdudi]

8. Reasons for Revelation

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1. The Believers had met with all sorts of trials and hardships about which they had been forewarned in Al-Baqarah. Though they had come out victorious in the Battle of Badr they were not out of danger yet. Their victory had aroused the enmity of all those powers in Arabia which were opposed to the islamic Movement. Signs of threatening storms had begun to appear on all sides and the Muslims were in a perpetual state of fear and anxiety. It looked as if the whole Arabian world around the tiny state of Madinah - which was no more than a village state at that time - was bent upon blotting out its very existence. This state of war was also adversely affecting its economy which had already been badly disturbed by the influx of the Muslim refugees from Makkah.

2. Then there was the disturbing problem of the Jewish clans who lived in the suburbs of Madinah. They were discarding the treaties of alliance they had made with the Prophet after his migration from Makkah. So much so that on the occasion of the Battle of Badr these people of the Book sympathized with the evil aims of the idolaters in spite of the fact that their fundamental articles of Faith - Monotheism, Prophethood and Life-after-death - were the same as those of the Muslims. After the Battle of Badr they openly began to incite the Quraysh and other Arab clans to wreak their vengeance on the Muslims. Thus those Jewish clans set aside their centuries-old friendly and neighbourly relations with the people of Madinah. At last when their mischievous actions and breaches of treaties became unbearable the Prophet attacked the Bani-Qaynuqah, the most mischievous of all the other Jewish clans who had conspired with the hypocrites of Madinah and the idolatrous Arab clans to encircle the Believers on all sides. The magnitude of the peril might be judged from the fact that even the life of the Prophet himself was always in danger. Therefore his Companions slept in their armours during that period and kept watch at night to guard against any sudden attack and whenever the Prophet happened to be out of sight even for a short while they would at once set out in search of him.

3. This incitement by the Jews added fuel to the fire which was burning in the hearts of the Quraysh and they began to make preparations to avenge the defeat they had suffered at Badr. A year after this an army of 3000 strong marched out of Makkah to invade Madinah and a battle took place at the foot of Mount Uhud. The Prophet came out of Madinah with one thousand men to meet the enemy. While they were marching to the battlefield three hundred hypocrites deserted the army and returned to Madinah but there still remained a small band of hypocrites among the seven hundred who accompanied the Prophet. They played their part and did their utmost to create mischief and chaos in the ranks of the Believers during the Battle. This was the first clear indication of the fact that within the fold of the Muslim Community there was quite a large number of saboteurs who were always ready to conspire with the external enemies to harm their own brethren.

4. Though the devices of the hypocrites had played a great part in the set-back at Uhud, the weaknesses of the Muslims themselves contributed no less to it. And it was but natural that the Muslims should show signs of moral weakness for they were a new community which had only recently been formed on a new ideology and had not as yet got a thorough moral training. Naturally in this second hard test of their physical and moral strength some weaknesses came to the surface. That is why a detailed review of the Battle of Uhud was needed to warn the Muslims of their shortcomings and to issue instructions for their reform. It should also be noted that this review of the Battle is quite different from the reviews that are usually made by generals on similar occasions.

9. Relevant Hadith

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