Surah Ale-Imran (The Family Of Imran ) 3 : 18

شَهِدَ ٱللَّهُ أَنَّهُۥ لَآ إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ وَٱلْمَلَٰٓئِكَةُ وَأُو۟لُوا۟ ٱلْعِلْمِ قَآئِمًۢا بِٱلْقِسْطِ ۚ لَآ إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ٱلْعَزِيزُ ٱلْحَكِيمُ

Translations

 
 Muhsin Khan
 Pickthall
 Yusuf Ali
Quran Project
Allāh witnesses that there is no deity except Him, and [so do] the angels and those of knowledge – [that He is] maintaining [creation] in justice. There is no deity except Him, the Exalted in Might, the Wise.

1. Lessons/Guidance/Reflections/Gems

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Explanatory Note

We have here a statement of the most essential facet of Islamic ideology, namely the fact of the oneness of God and that He is the Eternal Master of the universe Who maintains and executes justice. It is the same principle with which this sūrah opens: “God: there is no deity save Him, the Ever-living, the Eternal Master of all.” The ultimate objective of this sūrah is to establish in absolute clarity the true nature of the Islamic faith, and to dispel all doubts about it raised by people of earlier revelations. It seeks to dispel such doubts both from the minds of those unbelievers as also from the minds of those Muslims who may fall under their influence.
 
A testimony from God that there is no deity other than Him is sufficient for anyone who believes in God. Indeed, such a testimony may be thought sufficient only for a believer in God, for he is not in need of it as such. However, this is not absolutely true. People of earlier revelations believe in God, but at the same time they maintain that He has a son and a partner. The idolaters themselves used to profess that they believed in God. Their deviation and error took the form of ascribing partners and equals and children to God. When both groups of people are told that God Himself bears witness to the fact that there is no deity save Him, then this statement has a marked effect in correcting their beliefs.

The matter, however, is much finer and more profound. God’s testimony that there is no deity except Him is given here as a prelude to outlining what it entails. Since He Himself stresses His oneness, He, therefore, does not accept from His servants anything other than pure devotion to Him, which takes the form of Islam or submission to Him. Such submission is not confined to the realm of beliefs and feelings; it must be translated into total obedience to God and a conscious implementation of His law outlined in His revelations. If we view the matter from this angle, we will find many people in all ages claiming to believe in God but at the same time ascribing Divinity to others. This they do when they implement a law which is in conflict with His law, and obey those who do not follow His messenger or His book, and when they derive their values, standards and morals from sources other than Him. All such actions run contrary to their claim that they believe in God. They conflict with God’s own testimony that He is the only God in the universe.

The testimony of the angels and the people of knowledge takes the form of their total obedience to God’s orders and looking to Him alone for guidance, accepting everything which comes to them from Him without doubt or argument, once they are certain that it has come from Him. This sūrah has already referred to the attitude of such people of knowledge: “Those who are firmly grounded in knowledge say: ‘We believe in it; it is all from our Lord." This is, then, the testimony of the people of knowledge and the angels: total acceptance, obedience and submission.

The testimony of God, the angels and the men of knowledge to the oneness of God is coupled with their testimony to the fact that He establishes and maintains justice, since justice is an essential quality of Godhead. The Arabic text is phrased in such a way as to leave no doubt that justice, at all times and in all situations, is an attribute of God. This also explains the meaning of God being the Eternal Master of the universe which is stated at the beginning of this sūrah: “God: there is no deity save Him, the Ever-living, the Eternal Master of all.” He maintains His authority with justice.

God’s control of the universe and His conduct of its affairs and of people’s lives is always characterised by justice. Indeed, justice cannot be established in human life, which, in turn, cannot be set on its proper course as the rest of the universe where every single creature fulfils its function in perfect harmony with the rest of creation except through the implementation of the method and the way of life God has chosen for people, as outlined in His revelation. Otherwise, justice cannot be established, harmony cannot be achieved and there can be no interrelation between man and the universe. What takes place, then, is injustice, conflict and total ruin.

Throughout history, justice was established only during those periods when God’s method was adhered to. These were the times when human life was set on a perfect and straight course like everything else in the universe. However, human nature being what it is means that human beings tend to waver between obedience and disobedience to God. They move nearer to obedience to God whenever His method is  established  and  His  law  is  implemented.  Wherever  man-made  laws  are established, ignorance and shortcomings abound. A direct consequence of this is injustice in one form or another: an individual may do injustice to the community, or the community may be unjust to the individual, or one class tyrannises another, or one nation subjugates another, or one generation treats another with injustice. It is only Divine justice which remains free of any favouritism towards any of these. He is the Lord of all creation Who does not overlook anything on earth or in the heavens.
 
“There is no deity save Him, the Almighty, the Wise.” The same truism of the Oneness of God is repeated again in the same verse, but this time it is coupled with the two attributes of God’s might and wisdom. Both power and wisdom are essential for the purpose of maintaining justice. Justice can only be maintained when matters are set in their proper places and with the ability to so set them. God’s attributes suggest positive activity. Nothing in the Islamic concept associates God with any negative attribute. This is the proper and true concept of the Divine Being, because it is His own description of Himself. When we believe in God, in the light of His positive attributes, our thoughts remain concentrated on His will and His power. Our faith, then, becomes much more than an academic concept; it provides us with a dynamic motive to act and do what is required of us.

2. Linguistic Analysis

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ما الدلالة والإعراب لقائماً بالقسط؟ قائماً بالقسط أي قائماً بالعدل القسط هو العدل. قَسَط جار وظلم مصدره القَسْط بفتح القاف وهو الجَوْر والظلم. أقسط أزال الجور والظلم (همزة السلب) إسمه القِسْط بكسر القاف والمصدر إقساط (أفعل إفعال). القِسط هو العدل (وَأَمَّا الْقَاسِطُونَ فَكَانُوا لِجَهَنَّمَ حَطَبًا (15) الجن) القاسطون أي الظالمون، (إِنَّ اللّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُقْسِطِينَ (42) المائدة) أي الذين يعدلون. إذن قائماً بالقسط أي قائماً بالعدل شهد الله وشهدت الملائكة وشهد أولو العلم شهدوا أنه لا إله هو أي شهدوا له بالتوحيد والقيام بالقسط، كونه قائماً بالقسط، (قائماً) في أشهر الأعاريب أنها حال لازمة. الأصل في الحال التحول والإنتقال سمي حالاً لأنها تتحول، أقبل راكباً أقبل ضاحكاً، الأصل فيها التحول وقد تأتي الحال لازمة ثابتة في مواطن. الحال يتعلق بالفعل أو ما يشبه الفعل أو فيه معنى الفعل. والأصل فيها أن تكون منتقلة وقد تكون ثابتة لازمة كما قال (قَالَتْ رَبِّ إِنِّي وَضَعْتُهَا أُنثَى (36) آل عمران) أنثى حال ثابتة لأن الأنثى لن تتحول إلى ذكر، جاء مبتسماً سيتحول الآن مبتسم وسيتغير. إذن هنالك حال لازمة ويقولون خلق الله الزرافة يديها أطول من رجليها (أطول) حال لن تتحول. مسألة اللزوم والانتقال في الحال مخصوصة بالحال نفسها. يقول تعالى (وَخُلِقَ الإِنسَانُ ضَعِيفًا (28) النساء) لن يقوى، ولدته أعمى لن يُبصر هذه لازمة لا تتحول. إذن ربنا قال قائماً بالقسط لا ينفك "هو الحق صادقاً" الحق لا يكون كاذباً إذن هذا الحق لا يتغير إذن (صادقاً) حال لازمة، (وَهَـذَا صِرَاطُ رَبِّكَ مُسْتَقِيمًا (126) الأنعام) لن يعوجّ. هذه الشهادة أنه لا إله إلا هو قائماً بالقسط في هذه الحال اللازمة التوحيد والقيام بالقسط على اللزوم. شهدوا على أمرين لا إله إلا هو مع القيام بالقسط على وجه الدوام وإن كان والبعض يجوّز إعراب (قائماً) صفة لكلمة إله التي هي مبنية (لا إله) مبنية، إسم لا النافية للجنس. إذن على الإعراب المشهور أن (قائماً) حال وصاحب الحال الله سبحانه وتعالى.

*ما الفرق بين القسط والعدل؟القسط يكون أولاً في الوزن وغيره وله معنيان العدل والحِصّة والنصيب ولذلك كلمة القسط تستعمل في القرآن في الوزن وفي غيره (وَإِنْ حَكَمْتَ فَاحْكُم بَيْنَهُمْ بِالْقِسْطِ (42) المائدة) (يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ كُونُواْ قَوَّامِينَ بِالْقِسْطِ شُهَدَاء لِلّهِ (135) النساء) . أولاً لم يستعمل العدل مع الميزان مطلقاً في القرآن كله لم يستعمل إلا القسط لأن القسط هو الحصة والنصيب والغرض من الميزان أن يأخذ الإنسان نصيبه ولذلك لم ترد في القرآن كلمة العدل مع الوزن (وَأَوْفُواْ الْكَيْلَ وَالْمِيزَانَ بِالْقِسْطِ (152) الأنعام) ومن أسماء الميزان القسطاس (وَأَوْفُوا الْكَيْلَ إِذا كِلْتُمْ وَزِنُواْ بِالقِسْطَاسِ الْمُسْتَقِيمِ (35) الإسراء) باعتبار يأخذ حقه. القسط عامة لكن مع الميزان لم تستعمل إلا كلمة القسط لأن من معاني القسط الحصة والنصيب والغرض من الميزان الحصة والنصيب. وللعلم كلمة يقوم لم ترد في القرآن مع العدل (قوامين بالقسط) فقط (لِيَقُومَ النَّاسُ بِالْقِسْطِ (25) الحديد) (وَأَن تَقُومُواْ لِلْيَتَامَى بِالْقِسْطِ (127) النساء) (شَهِدَ اللّهُ أَنَّهُ لاَ إِلَـهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ وَالْمَلاَئِكَةُ وَأُوْلُواْ الْعِلْمِ قَآئِمَاً بِالْقِسْطِ (18) آل عمران ) (وَأَقِيمُوا الْوَزْنَ بِالْقِسْطِ وَلَا تُخْسِرُوا الْمِيزَانَ (9) الرحمن) (وَيَا قَوْمِ أَوْفُواْ الْمِكْيَالَ وَالْمِيزَانَ بِالْقِسْطِ (85) هود).  [Be the first to translate...Ref: Dr. Faadil as-Samara'ee]



Frequency of Root words in this Ayat used in this Surah *


3. Surah Overview

4. Miscellaneous Information

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5. Connected/Related Ayat

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6. Frequency of the word

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7. Period of Revelation

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“This Surah consists of four discourses:

  • The first discourse (v. 1-32) was probably revealed soon after the Battle of Badr.
  • The second discourse (v. 33-63) was revealed in 9 A.H. (After Hijrah - migration from Makkah to Madinah) on the occasion of the visit of the deputation from the Christians of Najran.
  • The third discourse (v. 64-120) appears to have been revealed immediately after the first one.
  • The fourth discourse (v. 121-200) was revealed after the Battle of Uhud.” [Mawdudi]

8. Reasons for Revelation

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1. The Believers had met with all sorts of trials and hardships about which they had been forewarned in Al-Baqarah. Though they had come out victorious in the Battle of Badr they were not out of danger yet. Their victory had aroused the enmity of all those powers in Arabia which were opposed to the islamic Movement. Signs of threatening storms had begun to appear on all sides and the Muslims were in a perpetual state of fear and anxiety. It looked as if the whole Arabian world around the tiny state of Madinah - which was no more than a village state at that time - was bent upon blotting out its very existence. This state of war was also adversely affecting its economy which had already been badly disturbed by the influx of the Muslim refugees from Makkah.

2. Then there was the disturbing problem of the Jewish clans who lived in the suburbs of Madinah. They were discarding the treaties of alliance they had made with the Prophet after his migration from Makkah. So much so that on the occasion of the Battle of Badr these people of the Book sympathized with the evil aims of the idolaters in spite of the fact that their fundamental articles of Faith - Monotheism, Prophethood and Life-after-death - were the same as those of the Muslims. After the Battle of Badr they openly began to incite the Quraysh and other Arab clans to wreak their vengeance on the Muslims. Thus those Jewish clans set aside their centuries-old friendly and neighbourly relations with the people of Madinah. At last when their mischievous actions and breaches of treaties became unbearable the Prophet attacked the Bani-Qaynuqah, the most mischievous of all the other Jewish clans who had conspired with the hypocrites of Madinah and the idolatrous Arab clans to encircle the Believers on all sides. The magnitude of the peril might be judged from the fact that even the life of the Prophet himself was always in danger. Therefore his Companions slept in their armours during that period and kept watch at night to guard against any sudden attack and whenever the Prophet happened to be out of sight even for a short while they would at once set out in search of him.

3. This incitement by the Jews added fuel to the fire which was burning in the hearts of the Quraysh and they began to make preparations to avenge the defeat they had suffered at Badr. A year after this an army of 3000 strong marched out of Makkah to invade Madinah and a battle took place at the foot of Mount Uhud. The Prophet came out of Madinah with one thousand men to meet the enemy. While they were marching to the battlefield three hundred hypocrites deserted the army and returned to Madinah but there still remained a small band of hypocrites among the seven hundred who accompanied the Prophet. They played their part and did their utmost to create mischief and chaos in the ranks of the Believers during the Battle. This was the first clear indication of the fact that within the fold of the Muslim Community there was quite a large number of saboteurs who were always ready to conspire with the external enemies to harm their own brethren.

4. Though the devices of the hypocrites had played a great part in the set-back at Uhud, the weaknesses of the Muslims themselves contributed no less to it. And it was but natural that the Muslims should show signs of moral weakness for they were a new community which had only recently been formed on a new ideology and had not as yet got a thorough moral training. Naturally in this second hard test of their physical and moral strength some weaknesses came to the surface. That is why a detailed review of the Battle of Uhud was needed to warn the Muslims of their shortcomings and to issue instructions for their reform. It should also be noted that this review of the Battle is quite different from the reviews that are usually made by generals on similar occasions.

9. Relevant Hadith

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