Surah al-Hajj (The Pilgrimage ) 22 : 30
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(the) sacred rites
And are made lawful
1. Lessons/Guidance/Reflections/Gems[ edit ]
Honouring God’s sanctities instils a keen, watchful sense lest one should violate them. In God’s measure, this is better for us. It is better in the realm of conscience and feeling, and better in this life generally. A watchful conscience is one which wants to remain pure, untainted. A community where God’s sanctities are inviolable ensures a life of peace where people are secure, fearing no aggression or persecution, reassured of their comfort and safety.
The idolaters in Makkah used to consider as sacred certain animals, such as a slit- ear she-camel, a she-camel let loose for pasture, idol sacrifices for animal twin-births, and stallion-camel freed from work. They falsely attributed sanctity for such animals, while they violated God’s clear sanctities. Therefore, the sūrah makes clear at this juncture that all cattle are lawful to eat, except for those specified as forbidden, such as carrion, blood, the flesh of swine and any animal at the slaughter of which any name other than God’s is invoked: “All kinds of cattle have been made lawful to you, except for what is specified to you [as forbidden].” (Verse 30) This has been made clear so that none other than God’s sanctities are acknowledged, none enacts any legislation except God, and no one exercises judgement according to any law other than that of God.
While all cattle are made lawful, the sūrah gives an order to steer away from the abomination of venerating idols. The idolaters used to slaughter their animals before idols that personified evil. Associating partners with God is also an evil that contaminates people’s hearts and consciences in the same way as an impurity contaminates a garment or a place. Since the association of partners with God is an act of fabricating falsehood against Him, the sūrah warns against saying anything untrue: “Shun, then, the loathsome evil of idolatrous beliefs and practices; and shun every word that is untrue.”
The Qur’ānic statement magnifies the offence of fabricating falsehood, putting it on a par with associating partners with God. A ĥadīth related by Imām Aĥmad states: “One day, the Prophet offered dawn prayers. When he stood up to leave, he said: ‘Perjury is equal to associating partners with God.’ He then recited this verse.”
2. Linguistic Analysis[ edit ]
4. Miscellaneous Information[ edit ]
5. Connected/Related Ayat[ edit ]
6. Frequency of the word[ edit ]
7. Period of Revelation[ edit ]
As this Surah contains the characteristics of both the Makkan and the MadÄ«nan Surahs the commentators have differed as to its period of revelation but in the light of its style and themes we are of the opinion that a part of it (v. 1-24) was sent down in the last stage of the Makkan life of the Prophet a little before migration and the rest (v. 25-78) during the first stage of his Madinah life. That is why this Surah combines the characteristics of both the Makkan and the Madinah Surahs.
According to Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Qatadah and other great commentators, v. 39 is the first verse that grants the Muslims permission to wage war. Collections of hadith and books on the life of the Prophet confirm that after this permission actual preparations for war were started and the first expedition was sent to the coast of the Red Sea in Safar 2 A.H. which is known as the Expedition of Waddan or Al-Abwa.