Surah al-Baqarah (The Cow) 2 : 97

قُلْ مَن كَانَ عَدُوًّا لِّجِبْرِيلَ فَإِنَّهُۥ نَزَّلَهُۥ عَلَىٰ قَلْبِكَ بِإِذْنِ ٱللَّهِ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ وَهُدًى وَبُشْرَىٰ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ

Translations

 
 Muhsin Khan
 Pickthall
 Yusuf Ali
Quran Project
Say, "Whoever is an enemy to Gabriel -it is [none but] he who has brought it [i.e., the Qur’ān] down upon your heart, [O Muhammad], by permission of Allāh, confirming that which was before it and as guidance and good tidings for the Believers."

1. Lessons/Guidance/Reflections/Gems

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Explanatory Note

The sūrah goes on to direct Prophet Muhammad to proclaim more challenging truths.

Another astonishing trait of the Israelites is revealed. The spite and envy they feel towards other recipients of God’s grace are not only beyond belief, but have now landed them in a serious paradox. Because they knew that the Angel Gabriel conveyed God’s revelations to Muhammad, and in view of the hatred and the grudge they harboured against Muhammad, they circulated the absurd tale that Gabriel was also an enemy of theirs because he was the Angel of death and destruction. This, they alleged, gave them a valid reason to reject Muhammad and the revelations he was receiving. Had it been the Angel Michael who had conveyed the revelations, they claimed, they would have accepted it, because he was the angel of rain, fertility and prosperity.

It is a ludicrous argument brought about by blind hatred. They had no reason to be hostile towards Gabriel who, not being human himself, could not take sides for or against them. He was a messenger whom they disliked although he had no personal preference or choice in delivering that message. He only did as he was bid.

We note in this verse the point that the Qur’ān was lodged in Muhammad’s ‘heart’, a term used frequently in the Qur’ān to indicate a non-physical part of the human personality that receives and understands. It does not refer to the physical human organ known by that name. The heart, according to the Qur’ān, is the centre of human perception.

The Qur’ān was lodged in Muhammad’s heart, confirming “the Scriptures revealed before it, and is a guidance and joyful tidings for the believers”.

  • وخص القلب بالذكر؛ لأنه موضع العقل والعلم وتلقي المعارف. القرطبي: 2/262 [Be the first to translate this...]
  • نَزَّلَهُ عَلَىٰ قَلْبِكَ  - Jibreel revealing upon the Heart   وَإِنَّهُ لَتَنزِيلُ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ  نَزَلَ بِهِ الرُّوحُ الْأَمِينُ عَلَىٰ قَلْبِكَ لِتَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُنذِرِينَ 

    "And indeed, the Qur'an is the revelation of the Lord of the worlds.The Trustworthy Spirit has brought it down. Upon your heart, [O Muhammad] - that you may be of the warners -" (26:192-194)

2. Linguistic Analysis

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Frequency of Root words in this Ayat used in this Surah *


3. Surah Overview

4. Miscellaneous Information

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5. Connected/Related Ayat

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  • Jibreel revealing upon the Heart - وَإِنَّهُ لَتَنزِيلُ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ  نَزَلَ بِهِ الرُّوحُ الْأَمِينُ عَلَىٰ قَلْبِكَ لِتَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُنذِرِينَ 

    "And indeed, the Qur'an is the revelation of the Lord of the worlds.The Trustworthy Spirit has brought it down. Upon your heart, [O Muhammad] - that you may be of the warners -" (26:192-194)

     

6. Frequency of the word

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7. Period of Revelation

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The scholars are unanimous that Surah al-Baqarah is Madani and that it was the first Surah revealed in Madinah. [Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani in Fath al-Bari no. 160/8].

Despite it being the first Surah to be revealed in Madinah, it contains Ayaat from a later period also. In fact, according to Ibn Abbas [as mentioned in Ibn Kathir] the last Ayat revealed to the Prophet was Ayat no. 281 from Surah al-Baqarah and this occurred 8 days or so before his death [which corresponds to the year 11 Hijri].

8. Reasons for Revelation

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At-Tabari said, "The scholars of Tafsir agree that this Ayah (2: 97-98) was revealed in response to the Jews who claimed that Jibril (Gabriel) is an enemy of the Jews and that Mika'il (Michael) is their friend.' [Ibn Katheer]

9. Relevant Hadith

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  • Make my Heart flourish with the Qur’ān -  A beautiful dua of the Prophet [saw]

    اللّهُـمَّ إِنِّي عَبْـدُكَ ابْنُ عَبْـدِكَ ابْنُ أَمَتِـكَ نَاصِيَتِي بِيَـدِكَ، مَاضٍ فِيَّ حُكْمُكَ، عَدْلٌ فِيَّ قَضَاؤكَ أَسْأَلُـكَ بِكُلِّ اسْمٍ هُوَ لَكَ سَمَّـيْتَ بِهِ نَفْسَكَ أِوْ أَنْزَلْتَـهُ فِي كِتَابِكَ، أَوْ عَلَّمْـتَهُ أَحَداً مِنْ خَلْقِـكَ أَوِ اسْتَـأْثَرْتَ بِهِ فِي عِلْمِ الغَيْـبِ عِنْـدَكَ أَنْ تَجْـعَلَ القُرْآنَ رَبِيـعَ قَلْبِـي، وَنورَ صَـدْرِي وجَلَاءَ حُـزْنِي وذَهَابَ هَمِّـي
    “O Allah, I am Your servant, son of Your servant, son of Your maidservant, my forelock is in Your hand, Your command over me is forever executed and Your decree over me is just. I ask You by every name belonging to You which You named Yourself with, or revealed in Your Book, or You taught to any of Your creation, or You have preserved in the knowledge of the unseen with You, that You make the Qur’ān the spring of my heart [i.e. make my heart flourish with the Qur’ān] and the light of my chest, and a departure for my sorrow and a release for my anxiety.” [Musnad Ahmad no. 6/153, Ibn Hibban no. 972 -  صحيح [Sahih]
     
  • Enmity to Jibreel

    Anas bin Malik said, "When `Abdullah bin Salam heard of the arrival of the Prophet in Al-Madinah, he was working on his land. He came to the Prophet and said, `I am going to ask you about three things which nobody knows except a Prophet. What will be the first portent of the Hour What will be the first meal taken by the people of Paradise Why does a child resemble its father, and why does it resemble its maternal uncle' Allah's Messenger said, (Jibril has just told me the answers.) `Abdullah said, `He (i.e. Jibril), among all the angels, is the enemy of the Jews.' Allah's Messenger recited the Ayah, مَن كَانَ عَدُوًّا لِّجِبْرِيلَ فَإِنَّهُ نَزَّلَهُ عَلَى قَلْبِكَ (Whoever is an enemy to Jibril (Gabriel) , for indeed he has brought it (this Qur'an) down to your heart). Allah's Messenger then said, (The first portent of the Hour will be a fire that will bring together the people from the east to the west; the first meal of the people of Paradise will be the caudate lobe of the liver of fish. As for the child resembling his parents: If a man has sexual intercourse with his wife and his discharge is first, the child will resemble the father. If the woman has a discharge first, the child will resemble her side of the family.) On that `Abdullah bin Salam said, `I testify that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah and you are the Messenger of Allah.' `Abdullah bin Salam further said, `O Allah's Messenger! The Jews are liars, and if they should come to know about my conversion to Islam before you ask them (about me), they will tell a lie about me.' The Jews came to Allah's Messenger , and `Abdullah went inside the house. Allah's Messenger asked (the Jews), (`What kind of man is `Abdullah bin Salam') They replied, `He is the best among us, the son of the best among us, our master and the son of our master.' Allah's Messenger said, (What do you think if he would embrace Islam) The Jews said, `May Allah save him from it.' Then `Abdullah bin Salam came out in front of them saying, `I testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.' Thereupon they said, `He is the evilest among us, and the son of the evilest among us.' And they continued talking badly about him. Ibn Salam said, `This is what I feared, O Messenger of Allah!.'' [This has been quoted by Ibn Katheer with his comments 'only Al-Bukhari recorded this Hadith with this chain of narration. Al-Bukhari and Muslim recorded this Hadith from Anas using another chain of narration.'] [The translation needs improvememnt - help by improving it....]

10. Wiki Forum

Comments in this section are statements made by general users – these are not necessarily explanations of the Ayah – rather a place to share personal thoughts and stories…

11. Tafsir Zone

 

12. External Links

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