Surah al-Baqarah (The Cow) 2 : 246
1. Lessons/Guidance/Reflections/Gems[ edit ]
The sūrah goes on to cite another episode of the story of the Israelites after the death of Moses, God’s messenger to them. The reference here is to a group of the Israelite elders who had asked one of their numerous Prophets, whose identity has not been given as it is not essential in this context, to appoint them a king to lead them into battle “for the cause of God”. The narrative suggests a time of religious revival among the Israelites, a strong desire to uphold ‘the truth and defend it against the ungodly enemies.
Resolve takes a fighter halfway to victory. He must be certain of the legitimacy of his cause, and the falsehood of that of his enemy, and his objective to uphold the cause of God must also be clear in his mind.
The wise prophet needed reassurance that the elders’ enthusiasm for fighting was not mere bravado, and that they were sincere in their resolve and committed to the requirements of fighting for God’s cause. He did not wish his efforts to be in vain. Would they flinch or retreat once fighting had been made obligatory for them?
The elders gave reasons of their own for wishing to fight: “They said, ‘Why should we not fight for the cause of God when we have been driven out of our homes and our children?’“ Their motives were clear: they had been wronged. So was their objective: they wanted to fight for the cause of God, and their determination was not open to question.
Nevertheless, as soon as the time had come for them to face their enemy, “Yet, when fighting was ordained for them, they turned back, save for a few of them.” Here the sūrah highlights the propensity of some Israelites to breach agreements, break promises and disobey God. It also points to their tendency to display disunity and to betray their cause. This is not only true of those Israelites, but it is true of many other human communities and groups who lack cultural maturity and a strong and enlightened tradition. Such characteristics need to be taken into account by those who have to lead these communities through difficult times.
The verse concludes with the comment: “God is fully aware of the wrongdoers.” This comment deplores the dereliction of responsibility and accuses the large group of betraying themselves, their leader and their cause. No group of people could be so certain of the legitimacy of their cause, and of God’s support for their case, and then go on to flagrantly relinquish their obligations. People who are certain of the truth they follow, like those Israelites were, could not just turn away from their responsibilities. If they do, they are certain to have the punishment reserved for wrongdoers.
The sūrah points to another disturbing streak in the Israelites’ character, cited a number of times in the sūrah. The group had asked for a king to be appointed to lead them into battle, claiming to be ready to fight for “the cause of God”. But, as soon as he was appointed, they began to question the wisdom of his choice and his eligibility to rule over them. They argued that some of them were better suited for the task because he did not come from a noble background, nor was he wealthy enough to be a king and leader.
- Many scholars write that the prophet mentioned in this Ayat is 'Samuel'.
- The tribes of Israel wanted to be united under a single leader so they could fight under a single banner as opposed to being disunited. They sought a central command to the armies.
- الثبات عند الابتلاء من صفات المؤمنين، ﴿ فَلَمَّا كُتِبَ عَلَيْهِمُ ٱلْقِتَالُ تَوَلَّوْا۟ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا مِّنْهُمْ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَلِيمٌۢ بِٱلظَّٰلِمِينَ [Be the first to translate....]
- لا تتمنَّ لقاء العدو، وإن لقيته فاصبر واثبت، ﴿ ۖ قَالُوا۟ وَمَا لَنَآ أَلَّا نُقَٰتِلَ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ وَقَدْ أُخْرِجْنَا مِن دِيَٰرِنَا وَأَبْنَآئِنَا ۖ فَلَمَّا كُتِبَ عَلَيْهِمُ ٱلْقِتَالُ تَوَلَّوْا۟ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا مِّنْهُمْ [Be the first to translate....]
2. Linguistic Analysis[ edit ]
4. Miscellaneous Information[ edit ]
5. Connected/Related Ayat[ edit ]
- وَمَا لَكُمْ لَا تُقَاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّـهِ وَالْمُسْتَضْعَفِينَ مِنَ الرِّجَالِ وَالنِّسَاءِ وَالْوِلْدَانِ الَّذِينَ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا أَخْرِجْنَا مِنْ هَـٰذِهِ الْقَرْيَةِ الظَّالِمِ أَهْلُهَا وَاجْعَل لَّنَا مِن لَّدُنكَ وَلِيًّا وَاجْعَل لَّنَا مِن لَّدُنكَ نَصِيرًا "And what is [the matter] with you that you fight not in the cause of Allah and [for] the oppressed among men, women, and children who say, "Our Lord, take us out of this city of oppressive people and appoint for us from Yourself a protector and appoint for us from Yourself a helper?" (4:75)
6. Frequency of the word[ edit ]
7. Period of Revelation[ edit ]
The scholars are unanimous that Surah al-Baqarah is Madani and that it was the first Surah revealed in Madinah. [Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani in Fath al-Bari no. 160/8].
Despite it being the first Surah to be revealed in Madinah, it contains Ayaat from a later period also. In fact, according to Ibn Abbas [as mentioned in Ibn Kathir] the last Ayat revealed to the Prophet was Ayat no. 281 from Surah al-Baqarah and this occurred 8 days or so before his death [which corresponds to the year 11 Hijri].
8. Reasons for Revelation[ edit ]
In order to understand the meaning of this Surah, we should know its historical background:
1. At Makkah, the Quran generally addressed the polytheist Quraysh who were ignorant of Islam, but at Madinah it was also concerned with the Jews who were acquainted with the creed of Monotheism, Prophethood, Revelation, the Hereafter and Angels. They also professed to believe in the law which was revealed by God to their Prophet Moses, and in principle, their way was the same (Islam) that was being taught by Prophet Muhammad. But they had strayed away from it during the centuries of degeneration and had adopted many un-Islamic creeds, rites and customs of which there was no mention and for which there was no sanction in the Torah. Not only this: they had tampered with the Torah by inserting their own explanations and interpretations into its text. They had distorted even that part of the Word of God which had remained intact in their Scriptures and taken out of it the real spirit of true religion and were now clinging to a lifeless frame of rituals. Consequently their beliefs, their morals and their conduct had gone to the lowest depths of degeneration. The pity is that they were not only satisfied with their condition but loved to cling to it. Besides this, they had no intention or inclination to accept any kind of reform. So they became bitter enemies of those who came to teach them the Right Way and did their utmost to defeat every such effort. Though they were originally Muslims, they had swerved from the real Islam and made innovations and alterations in it and had fallen victims to hair splitting and sectarianism. They had forgotten and forsaken God and begun to serve material wealth. So much so that they had even given up their original name “Muslim” and adopted the name “Jew” instead, and made religion the sole monopoly of the children of Israel. This was their religious condition when the Prophet went to Madinah and invited the Jews to the true religion. That is why more than one third of this Surah has been addressed to the children of Israel. A critical review of their history, their moral degeneration and their religious perversions has been made. Side by side with this, the high standard of morality and the fundamental principles of the pure religion have been put forward in order to bring out clearly the nature of the degeneration of the community of a prophet when it goes astray and to draw clear lines of demarcation between real piety and formalism, and the essentials and non-essentials of the true religion.
2. At Makkah, Islam was mainly concerned with the propagation of its fundamental principles and the moral training of its followers. But after the migration of the Prophet to Madinah, where Muslims had come to settle from all over Arabia and where a tiny Islamic State had been set up with the help of the ‘local supporters’ (Ansar), naturally the Quran had to turn its attention to the social, cultural, economic, political and legal problems as well. This accounts for the difference between the themes of the Surahs revealed at Makkah and those at Madinah. Accordingly about half of this Surah deals with those principles and regulations which are essential for the integration and solidarity of a community and for the solution of its problems.
After the migration to Madinah, the struggle between Islam and disbelief (Kufr) had also entered a new phase. Before this the Believers, who propagated Islam among their own clans and tribes, had to face its opponents at their own risk. But the conditions had changed at Madinah, where Muslims from all parts of Arabia had come and settled as one community, and had established an independent city state. Here it became a struggle for the survival of the Community itself, for the whole of non-Muslim Arabia was bent upon and united in crushing it totally. Hence the following instructions, upon which depended not only its success but its very survival, were revealed in this Surah:
a. The Community should work with the utmost zeal to propagate its ideology and win over to its side the greatest possible number of people.
b. It should so expose its opponents as to leave no room for doubt in the mind of any sensible person that they were adhering to an absolutely wrong position.
c. It should infuse in its members (the majority of whom were homeless and indigent and surrounded on all sides by enemies) that courage and fortitude which is so indispensable to their very existence in the adverse circumstances in which they were struggling and to prepare them to face these boldly.
d. It should also keep them ready and prepared to meet any armed menace, which might come from any side to suppress and crush their ideology, and to oppose it tooth and nail without minding the overwhelming numerical strength and the material resources of its enemies.
e. It should also create in them that courage which is needed for the eradication of evil ways and for the establishment of the Islamic Way instead. That is why God has revealed in this Surah such instructions as may help achieve all the above mentioned objects.
At the time of the revelation of Al-Baqarah, all sorts of hypocrites had begun to appear. God has, therefore, briefly pointed out their characteristics here. Afterwards when their evil characteristics and mischievous deeds became manifest, God sent detailed instructions about them. [REF: Mawdudi]
9. Relevant Hadith[ edit ]
- Their Prophet said to them, "What if Allah appoints a king over you, would you fulfill your vow to fight under his command'' 'They said, "Why should we not fight in Allah's way while we have been driven out of our homes and our children'' [Ibn Kathir]