Surah al-Baqarah (The Cow) 2 : 200
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your acts of worship
as you remember
1. Lessons/Guidance/Reflections/Gems[ edit ]
Prior to Islam, the Arabs had no mission or message to take them outside the confines of the Arabian Peninsula. They would throng to the famous market places of `Ukāż, Mijannah, and Dhu’l-Majāz, not only to trade and exchange material goods, but also to display their tribal pride, eulogise their ancestors and celebrate their past glories. These were occasions for showing off their poetic and literary prowess. They had no other culturally or nationally significant pursuits to attract their interest or encourage them to mix with or explore other cultures and societies.
With the advent of Islam, however, they acquired a fresh outlook on life, a great responsibility, and a definite purpose. The Qur’ān prompted them in their new direction: “When you have fulfilled your sacred duties, remember God as you remember your fathers — nay with a yet keener remembrance.”
The irony of this statement would not have escaped them. It ridicules their infatuation with their forefathers and instructs them to correct their behaviour by devoting their attention completely to God, and with far greater diligence. Just as they are required to abandon their normal dress for the untailored, plain garments of iĥrām, they are directed to break free from their racial and ethnic prejudices. It is made clear to them that devotion to God alone, and not to their ancestral glory, will take them to higher attainments in this world.
Man’s destiny is determined, and his credentials evaluated, according to how close his way of life is to God. “Some people say, ‘Our Lord, give us abundance in this world.’ They shall have no share in the rewards of the life to come. There are others who say, ‘Our Lord, grant us what is good in this world and what is good in the life to come and protect us from the torment of the fire. ‘These shall have their portion in return for what they have earned; for God is swift in reckoning.”
There are two types of people: those who care only for the here and now and devote their energies to nothing else, and those with a wider vision and more far-reaching concerns, who are conscious of God and who seek happiness in this life without forfeiting their share of life to come.
Ibn `Abbās reported that this verse was revealed with reference to those Arabs who, on pilgrimage day, would pray for rain, or a good harvest, or a successful breeding season, but ask nothing of the rewards of the hereafter. Of course, its message is timeless and applies much more generally. Such people, who remain preoccupied with this worldly life even as they pray to God, are to be found in all human societies and generations. God, in His infinite wisdom, may well grant them some or all of what they wish for, but their share in the life to come will amount to nothing.
2. Linguistic Analysis[ edit ]
4. Miscellaneous Information[ edit ]
5. Connected/Related Ayat[ edit ]
6. Frequency of the word[ edit ]
7. Period of Revelation[ edit ]
The scholars are unanimous that Surah al-Baqarah is Madani and that it was the first Surah revealed in Madinah. [Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani in Fath al-Bari no. 160/8].
Despite it being the first Surah to be revealed in Madinah, it contains Ayaat from a later period also. In fact, according to Ibn Abbas [as mentioned in Ibn Kathir] the last Ayat revealed to the Prophet was Ayat no. 281 from Surah al-Baqarah and this occurred 8 days or so before his death [which corresponds to the year 11 Hijri].
8. Reasons for Revelation[ edit ]
In order to understand the meaning of this Surah, we should know its historical background:
1. At Makkah, the Quran generally addressed the polytheist Quraysh who were ignorant of Islam, but at Madinah it was also concerned with the Jews who were acquainted with the creed of Monotheism, Prophethood, Revelation, the Hereafter and Angels. They also professed to believe in the law which was revealed by God to their Prophet Moses, and in principle, their way was the same (Islam) that was being taught by Prophet Muhammad. But they had strayed away from it during the centuries of degeneration and had adopted many un-Islamic creeds, rites and customs of which there was no mention and for which there was no sanction in the Torah. Not only this: they had tampered with the Torah by inserting their own explanations and interpretations into its text. They had distorted even that part of the Word of God which had remained intact in their Scriptures and taken out of it the real spirit of true religion and were now clinging to a lifeless frame of rituals. Consequently their beliefs, their morals and their conduct had gone to the lowest depths of degeneration. The pity is that they were not only satisfied with their condition but loved to cling to it. Besides this, they had no intention or inclination to accept any kind of reform. So they became bitter enemies of those who came to teach them the Right Way and did their utmost to defeat every such effort. Though they were originally Muslims, they had swerved from the real Islam and made innovations and alterations in it and had fallen victims to hair splitting and sectarianism. They had forgotten and forsaken God and begun to serve material wealth. So much so that they had even given up their original name “Muslim” and adopted the name “Jew” instead, and made religion the sole monopoly of the children of Israel. This was their religious condition when the Prophet went to Madinah and invited the Jews to the true religion. That is why more than one third of this Surah has been addressed to the children of Israel. A critical review of their history, their moral degeneration and their religious perversions has been made. Side by side with this, the high standard of morality and the fundamental principles of the pure religion have been put forward in order to bring out clearly the nature of the degeneration of the community of a prophet when it goes astray and to draw clear lines of demarcation between real piety and formalism, and the essentials and non-essentials of the true religion.
2. At Makkah, Islam was mainly concerned with the propagation of its fundamental principles and the moral training of its followers. But after the migration of the Prophet to Madinah, where Muslims had come to settle from all over Arabia and where a tiny Islamic State had been set up with the help of the ‘local supporters’ (Ansar), naturally the Quran had to turn its attention to the social, cultural, economic, political and legal problems as well. This accounts for the difference between the themes of the Surahs revealed at Makkah and those at Madinah. Accordingly about half of this Surah deals with those principles and regulations which are essential for the integration and solidarity of a community and for the solution of its problems.
After the migration to Madinah, the struggle between Islam and disbelief (Kufr) had also entered a new phase. Before this the Believers, who propagated Islam among their own clans and tribes, had to face its opponents at their own risk. But the conditions had changed at Madinah, where Muslims from all parts of Arabia had come and settled as one community, and had established an independent city state. Here it became a struggle for the survival of the Community itself, for the whole of non-Muslim Arabia was bent upon and united in crushing it totally. Hence the following instructions, upon which depended not only its success but its very survival, were revealed in this Surah:
a. The Community should work with the utmost zeal to propagate its ideology and win over to its side the greatest possible number of people.
b. It should so expose its opponents as to leave no room for doubt in the mind of any sensible person that they were adhering to an absolutely wrong position.
c. It should infuse in its members (the majority of whom were homeless and indigent and surrounded on all sides by enemies) that courage and fortitude which is so indispensable to their very existence in the adverse circumstances in which they were struggling and to prepare them to face these boldly.
d. It should also keep them ready and prepared to meet any armed menace, which might come from any side to suppress and crush their ideology, and to oppose it tooth and nail without minding the overwhelming numerical strength and the material resources of its enemies.
e. It should also create in them that courage which is needed for the eradication of evil ways and for the establishment of the Islamic Way instead. That is why God has revealed in this Surah such instructions as may help achieve all the above mentioned objects.
At the time of the revelation of Al-Baqarah, all sorts of hypocrites had begun to appear. God has, therefore, briefly pointed out their characteristics here. Afterwards when their evil characteristics and mischievous deeds became manifest, God sent detailed instructions about them. [REF: Mawdudi]
9. Relevant Hadith[ edit ]
- Prophet used to say, O Allah, our Lord! Give us that which is good in this life, that which is good in the Hereafter and save us from the torment of the Fire. [Bukhari]
- Allah's Messenger visited a Muslim man who had become as weak as a sick small bird. Allah's Messenger said to him, `Were you asking or supplicating to Allah about something' He said, `Yes. I used to say: O Allah! Whatever punishment you saved for me in the Hereafter, give it to me in this life.' Allah's Messenger said All praise is due to Allah! You cannot bear it -or stand it-. You should have said ' Our Lord! Give us in this world that which is good and in the Hereafter that which is good, and save us from the torment of the Fire!' [Bukhari]