Surah Yunus (Jonah) 10 : 68

قَالُوا۟ ٱتَّخَذَ ٱللَّهُ وَلَدًا ۗ سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ ۖ هُوَ ٱلْغَنِىُّ ۖ لَهُۥ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَمَا فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ ۚ إِنْ عِندَكُم مِّن سُلْطَٰنٍۭ بِهَٰذَآ ۚ أَتَقُولُونَ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ

Translations

 
 Muhsin Khan
 Pickthall
 Yusuf Ali
Quran Project
They have said, "Allāh has taken a son." Exalted is He; He is the [one] Free of need. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth. You have no authority for this [claim]. Do you say about Allāh that which you do not know?

1. Lessons/Guidance/Reflections/Gems

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Explanatory Note
 
The belief alleging that God has a son is naïve, based on a faulty concept of Godhead. One that does not appreciate the huge gulf between the nature of the eternal God, and the nature of mortal humans. Nor does it appreciate the great wisdom that allows mortals to procreate, so that they compensate for the short duration of their lives. This shortcoming does not apply to God.
 
Human beings die, and human life extends to an appointed time. It is God’s wisdom that has allowed human life to continue until it reaches its ultimate point. Such continuity is made possible through procreation. Human beings get older and weaker. When they have children, their offspring compensate for their creeping weakness with the vitality of their youth, helping to continue the process of building human life on earth. Moreover, the young provide the necessary help to the elderly through their years of weakness. People also have to struggle within their environment, and against their enemies, whether human or animal. Hence they need support which is more likely to come from offspring. People also seek to have abundance of what they earn, and their children help them with their efforts which increase their earnings.
 
The same applies to all aspects that God has made necessary for the building of human life on earth, until the time appointed when God’s will concerning its future is to be accomplished. None of this applies to God who does not need to have any continuity through offspring, or help in old age, or support in any endeavour. He has no need of anything. Hence there is no need for Him to have a son because His nature is such that He needs nothing to be accomplished by outside help. God has made human beings reproductive because, by nature, they have a definite need for such continuity.

Self sufficiency is to stress that He is in no need of anything whatsoever, whether real or imaginary, which requires the presence of a son. It is well known that needs are the causes of what satisfies them. Nothing is given existence without a need or a purpose.

Everything belongs to Him. He does not need a son in order to gain anything whatsoever. Hence, attributing a son to Him is idle play, and far be it from Him to admit idle play.
 
To say something concerning a subject about which one knows nothing is unbecoming of intelligent human beings. When what is said is fabricated against God Himself, it becomes a terrible offence. For one thing, it contradicts all that is due to God of worship, respect and glorification, because it attributes to Him all that is associated with an event of imperfection and inability. Moreover, it is based on a faulty concept of the relationship between the Creator and His creation, leading to further errors in all relations between people, since the latter are essentially based on the former. All the authority claimed by the priests of pagan religions or by the Christian churches is based on the misconception of the relationship between God and His ‘angel daughters’ or between Him and Jesus Christ who is alleged to be His son. Moreover the concept of original sin, which has led to the practice of confession, and giving Christ’s church an intermediary role between human beings and the One whom they describe as Christ’s father, stems from a basic error in understanding the relationship between the Creator and His creation.
 
Hence the matter is not merely an erroneous belief, but rather, it is man’s whole life that is affected. All the hostility that took place between the Church and scientists, and even between it and human intellect, is based on this fundamental error. This hostility was only brought to rest when society got shot of the Church’s authority, and even of religion itself. Once the relationship between God and His creation is ill-conceived, much evil is bound to happen. Humanity has suffered this evil whenever materialistic doctrines have corrupted human life.
 
Hence the Islamic faith has taken extra care to make this relationship perfectly clear. God is the Creator, the Eternal, the Sustainer. The relationship between Him and all people, without exception, is that which exists between the Creator and His creation. The universe, life and the living exist according to certain laws that God has put into operation. These never fail and they apply to all people in equal measure, without favouritism or prejudice. Whoever observes these rules will be successful, and whoever puts them aside will end up the loser. All people will return to God, and He accepts no intercession. Everyone comes to Him on his or her own. They will have their individual reward for what they have done in this life. God will not treat anyone with injustice.
 
It is a simple faith that admits no erroneous interpretation. It does not take the human mind along any mysterious or confused way. Everyone stands in front of God in the same position. Everyone is addressed by God’s message and is required to implement it. This ensures that relations between people are set on the right footing, as a result of forging the right and solid relationship between them and God.

2. Linguistic Analysis

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Frequency of Root words in this Ayat used in this Surah *


3. Surah Overview

4. Miscellaneous Information

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5. Connected/Related Ayat

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6. Frequency of the word

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7. Period of Revelation

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We learn from hadith the Surah was revealed in Makkah. But there are some people who are of the opinion that some of its verses were revealed at Madinah. This is however a superficial view. The continuity of the theme clearly shows that this does not comprise isolated verses or discourses that were revealed at different times and on different occasions. On the contrary it is from the beginning to the end a closely connected discourse which must have been revealed at one sitting. Besides this the nature of its theme is itself a clear proof that the Surah belongs to the Makkan period. [Ref: Mawdudi]

Some consider it to have been revealed after Surah al-Isra [17] and before Hud [11] – which would place it around year 11 of Prophethood.[Ref: Ibn Ashoor, Tahrir wa Tanwir]

8. Reasons for Revelation

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We have no hadith in regard to the time of its revelation but its subject matter gives clear indication that it must have been revealed during the last stage of the Prophet’s residence at Makkah. For the mode of the discourse suggests that at the time of its revelation the antagonism of the opponents of the Message had become so intense that they could not tolerate even the presence of the Prophet and his followers among themselves and that things had come to such a pass as to leave no hope that they would ever understand and accept the Message of the Prophet. This indicates that the last stage of the Prophet’s life among the people had come and the final warning like the one in this Surah had to be given. These characteristics of the discourse are clear proof that it was revealed during the last stage of the Movement at Makkah. Another thing that determines more specifically the order of the Surahs of the last stage at Makkah is the mention (or absence) of some open or covert hint about emigration (Hijrah) from Makkah. As this Surah does not contain any hint whatsoever about this it is a proof that it preceded those Surahs which contain it. Now that we have specified the time of its revelation there is no need of repeating its historical background because that has already been stated in Surah 6: al-An’am (The Grazing Livestock) and  Surah 7: al-A’raf (The Elevations).

9. Relevant Hadith

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10. Wiki Forum

Comments in this section are statements made by general users – these are not necessarily explanations of the Ayah – rather a place to share personal thoughts and stories…

11. Tafsir Zone

 

12. External Links

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